Trading States and Kingdoms in Early Africa

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Transcript Trading States and Kingdoms in Early Africa

Trading States and
Kingdoms East and West
Salt would become a major trading commodity for
human health and preservation of food
By 100 A.D. farming villages in West Africa would
begin to produce surplus.
Surplus food would be traded with other villages for
Trade networks would eventually develop linking the
Savanna to rainforest regions with trade networks
across the Sahara to the Mediterranean and
Southwest Asia.
► Trading Gold for Salt
 Gold and Salt would end up dominating the
Sahara trade
 Gold was widely available in the area of
present-day Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal.
 It is estimated that between 500-1600 A.D.
about 8 tons of gold were exported annually
from West Africa.
► Price
of gold per troy ounce $1365.00
 29,166.667 troy ounces in a ton
 In exchange for gold the West Africans would
trade salt.
 In the savanna salt was scarce but was
abundant in many parts of the Sahara
 With the prospering of this salt and gold
exchange, cities emerged along the trade routes
with monarchs and kingdoms emerging.
► Ghana
 Ruler and Government
800 A.D.
were the Soninke people around
by princes and officials
the same as present day Ghana. Is
actually present day Mali
 Reasons for Rise
► Rich
in gold
► The
kings controlled the gold and salt trade across West
► Large
► Traded
gold, precious woods, and kola nuts.
► Muslim
merchants brought their Muslim faith
► Rulers
employed Muslim language, money, and business
 Reasons for Decline of Ghana
1050 A.D. the Almoravids from North
Africa attacked Ghana.
Almoravids tried to maintain control of
trade routes but were unsuccessful.
would eventually come under the
control of Mali.
Empire of Ghana
 Ruler and Government
► By
1235 A.D. Sundiata would control the West African
gold trade to bring about the kingdom of Mali.
► Mansa
Musa was a capable Muslim leader who
expanded the empire from 1312 until he died in 1337.
 Reasons for Rise
► The
mansas or rulers of Mali would expand their
influence over the salt and gold trade.
► Strong
Mandingo leaders like Mansa Musa conquered
neighboring lands.
► Islam
united the people.
► Mansa
Musa would create diplomatic and economic ties
with other Muslim countries through a hajj (pilgrimage)
to Mecca.
► Timbuktu
became a great city of Muslim learning and
 Reasons for Decline
► Power
struggles between weaker rulers in the early
Mansa Musa
► Timbuktu
University (Sankore Mosque)
Empire of Mali
► Songhai
 Ruler and Government
Ali restored order in 1464. He did not
convert to Islam but followed traditional
Muhammad helped Songhai reach its
peak of power by creating a Muslim dynasty.
Muhammad would take a pilgrimage
to Mecca creating ties to the wider Muslim
 Reasons for Rise
along the fertile region of the Niger
River in present day Mali and Niger.
Ali captured Timbuktu and other centers
of trade.
under Askia Muhammad.
 Reasons for Decline
in 1591 to invaders from Morocco who
seized the gold and salt resources.
 Ruler and Government
► The
rulers or kings were called Obas and established
their kingdom in the 1300’s.
► The
oba was political, judicial, and religious leader.
► Power
was spread among other figures including the
queen mother and a council of hereditary chiefs.
► Ewuare
was an Oba who established a central
 Reasons for Rise
► Arose
in the rain forests of the Guinea coast.
► They
built farming villages and traded pepper and ivory
as well as slaves with their neighbors in the savanna.
► Ewuare
captured towns and created a central
► Benin
city was a center of industry.
► Known
for the creation of bronze sculptures
City-states of East Africa
 Ruler and Government
► City-state:
Was a large town with its own
► Became
trading centers.
 Reasons for Rise
► Cities
like Malinda, Mombasa, Kilwa, and Sofala were
major trading centers.
► Arab
traders bought slaves and other goods.
 Reasons for Decline of City-States
attacked and taken over by the
Portuguese in the early 1500’s.
City-States of East Africa
► Zimbabwe
(Stone Houses)
 Rulers and Government
► By
1300 A.D. power revolved around the control of
gold mines.
► Rulers
were probably god-kings presiding over large
 Reasons for Rise
► Gold
trade made the rulers wealthy.
► The
international trade led to the emergence of the
Swahili culture-a blend of East African and Arabic
 Reasons for Decline
► Power
struggles weakened the kingdom in the 1500’s.
► Dwindling