Trading States and Kingdoms in Early Africa

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Transcript Trading States and Kingdoms in Early Africa

Trading States and
Kingdoms East and West
Africa
►
Salt would become a major trading commodity for
human health and preservation of food
►
By 100 A.D. farming villages in West Africa would
begin to produce surplus.
►
Surplus food would be traded with other villages for
products.
►
Trade networks would eventually develop linking the
Savanna to rainforest regions with trade networks
across the Sahara to the Mediterranean and
Southwest Asia.
► Trading Gold for Salt
 Gold and Salt would end up dominating the
Sahara trade
 Gold was widely available in the area of
present-day Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal.
 It is estimated that between 500-1600 A.D.
about 8 tons of gold were exported annually
from West Africa.
► Price
of gold per troy ounce $1365.00
 29,166.667 troy ounces in a ton
 In exchange for gold the West Africans would
trade salt.
 In the savanna salt was scarce but was
abundant in many parts of the Sahara
 With the prospering of this salt and gold
exchange, cities emerged along the trade routes
with monarchs and kingdoms emerging.
► Ghana
 Ruler and Government
►Founders
800 A.D.
►Ruled
►Not
were the Soninke people around
by princes and officials
the same as present day Ghana. Is
actually present day Mali
 Reasons for Rise
► Rich
in gold
► The
kings controlled the gold and salt trade across West
Africa
► Large
army
► Traded
gold, precious woods, and kola nuts.
► Muslim
merchants brought their Muslim faith
► Rulers
employed Muslim language, money, and business
methods.
 Reasons for Decline of Ghana
►About
1050 A.D. the Almoravids from North
Africa attacked Ghana.
►The
Almoravids tried to maintain control of
trade routes but were unsuccessful.
►Ghana
would eventually come under the
control of Mali.
Empire of Ghana
►
Mali
 Ruler and Government
► By
1235 A.D. Sundiata would control the West African
gold trade to bring about the kingdom of Mali.
► Mansa
Musa was a capable Muslim leader who
expanded the empire from 1312 until he died in 1337.
 Reasons for Rise
► The
mansas or rulers of Mali would expand their
influence over the salt and gold trade.
► Strong
Mandingo leaders like Mansa Musa conquered
neighboring lands.
► Islam
united the people.
► Mansa
Musa would create diplomatic and economic ties
with other Muslim countries through a hajj (pilgrimage)
to Mecca.
► Timbuktu
became a great city of Muslim learning and
trade.
 Reasons for Decline
► Power
struggles between weaker rulers in the early
1400’s.
Mansa Musa
► Timbuktu
University (Sankore Mosque)
Empire of Mali
► Songhai
 Ruler and Government
►Sunni
Ali restored order in 1464. He did not
convert to Islam but followed traditional
beliefs.
►Askia
Muhammad helped Songhai reach its
peak of power by creating a Muslim dynasty.
►Askia
Muhammad would take a pilgrimage
to Mecca creating ties to the wider Muslim
world.
 Reasons for Rise
►Developed
along the fertile region of the Niger
River in present day Mali and Niger.
►Sunni
Ali captured Timbuktu and other centers
of trade.
►Islam
under Askia Muhammad.
 Reasons for Decline
►Fell
in 1591 to invaders from Morocco who
seized the gold and salt resources.
Songhai
►
Benin
 Ruler and Government
► The
rulers or kings were called Obas and established
their kingdom in the 1300’s.
► The
oba was political, judicial, and religious leader.
► Power
was spread among other figures including the
queen mother and a council of hereditary chiefs.
► Ewuare
was an Oba who established a central
government.
 Reasons for Rise
► Arose
in the rain forests of the Guinea coast.
► They
built farming villages and traded pepper and ivory
as well as slaves with their neighbors in the savanna.
► Ewuare
captured towns and created a central
government.
► Benin
city was a center of industry.
► Known
for the creation of bronze sculptures
Ewuare
►
City-states of East Africa
 Ruler and Government
► City-state:
Was a large town with its own
government.
► Became
trading centers.
 Reasons for Rise
► Cities
like Malinda, Mombasa, Kilwa, and Sofala were
major trading centers.
► Arab
traders bought slaves and other goods.
 Reasons for Decline of City-States
►Were
attacked and taken over by the
Portuguese in the early 1500’s.
City-States of East Africa
► Zimbabwe
(Stone Houses)
 Rulers and Government
► By
1300 A.D. power revolved around the control of
gold mines.
► Rulers
courts.
were probably god-kings presiding over large
 Reasons for Rise
► Gold
trade made the rulers wealthy.
► The
international trade led to the emergence of the
Swahili culture-a blend of East African and Arabic
cultures.
 Reasons for Decline
► Power
struggles weakened the kingdom in the 1500’s.
► Dwindling
trade