Islamic Civilization - Doral Academy Preparatory

download report

Transcript Islamic Civilization - Doral Academy Preparatory

Islamic Culture & Civilization
A.
Law & Dogma
1. Islamic law: Shari’a— evolved
from the need for a uniform
legal system
- law of Abbasid Empire
2. Shari’a developed over
centuries
Idea: all Muslims are equal;
are brothers & sisters & share
same moral values
The Five Pillars of Islam
One
God
Prayer
5 times
a day
The
hajj to
Mecca
Allah
-facing
Mecca
Fasting
during
month of
Ramadan
Giving of
charity
B. Converts & Cities
1. Religious conversion & urbanization were related:
-converts moved to wealthy, expanding urban areas
2. Social life & the practice of Islam were varied due to
NO CENTRAL AUTHORITY
-treatment of females varied by region
3. Dar-al-Islam: “House of Islam” where Muslims can
practice freely
C. Islam, Women, & Slaves
1. Muslim women were veiled & secluded (harem)
-women could be influential in the family, but NOT in
public
2. Muslim women DID have rights under Islamic law
- right to own property
- to divorce
- to remarry
- to testify in court
- to go on hajj
3. Muhammad’s 3rd wife A’isha (married her at age 6
& consummated at 10) created idea about women:
- sexual infidelity & meddling in politics
4. Not permitted to enslave others EXCEPT when taken
as prisoners of war
D. The Recentering of Islam
1. Decline of caliphate & internal conflict in 12-13th
cen. caused new sources of religious authority:
a. madrasas (religious colleges)
b. Sufi brotherhoods
2. Sufi brotherhoods: fraternities of rituals &
everyday training
Islamic Caliphates
Location
UMAYYADS
ABBASIDS
Society
Trade
Achievements