Holy Books

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Transcript Holy Books

Politics and Religion
Major World Religions
Judaism

Who – Abraham, Moses

When – circa 3000 BC

Where – Israel

Holy Books - Torah,
and Talmud

Major Divisions –
Orthodox, Conservative,
Reform
Basic Beliefs

Monotheistic – one God

Jews are the chosen
people of God, must
follow his laws.

Jerusalem/Israel are
holy lands.
Christianity

Who – Jesus of Nazareth

When – circa 30AD

Where – Israel

Holy Books – Old and New
Testaments

Major Divisions – Catholic,
Protestant, Orthodox
Basic Beliefs
 Jesus Christ is the son of
God
 Death and resurrection
 Came to redeem mankind
from sin.
Who – Mohammed
When – circa 620AD
Where – Arabian Peninsula
Holy Books – Quran and the
Hadith
Major Divisions – Sunni, Shia
Basic Beliefs
There is no god but Allah,
and Muhammad is the
messenger of God
Quran is word of God.
Muslims must perform the
“Five Pillars of Faith”.
Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam
- the five obligations that every Muslim must satisfy in
order to live a good and responsible life according to
Islam.
1.Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of faith
•Salat: performing ritual prayers in the proper way five times each day
•Zakat: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit the poor and the
needy
•Sawm: fasting during the month of Ramadan
•Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca
Rules to live by
• Rules or Pillars of Islam
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Faith
Prayer
Alms
Fasting
Pilgrimage
Faith
• “There is no other
God but Allah.
• Muhammad was the
messenger to God
• Faithful to Allah will
give you Paradise in
the after life
Prayer
• Pray 5 times a day
• Always facing Mecca
• Mosque
– Temples for the
Islamic faith
Alms
• Giving to the poor
• Take care of the poor,
orphans and the old.
Fasting
• During the month of
Ramadan the Muslims
fast.
• No eating or drinking
from sun up to sun
down
Pilgrimage
• Take a trip to Mecca
once in a life time.
• Trip is a
journey/journey of
faith
• This is called a hajj
IslamAn Abrahamic
Religion
 Muslims are strict monotheists.

They believe in the JudeoChristian God, which they call
Allah.

Muslims believe that the Torah
and the Bible, like the Qur’an,
is the word of God.
Peoples of the Book
Abraham’s Genealogy
HAGAR
ABRAHAM
Ishmael
12 Arabian
Tribes
SARAH
Isaac
Jacob
12 Tribes of
Israel
Esau
The Prophetic Tradition
Adam
Noah
Abraham
Moses
Jesus
Muhammad
The Mosque
Other Islamic Religious
Practices
 Up to four wives allowed at once.

No alcohol or pork.

No gambling.

Sharia  body of Islamic law to
regulate daily living.

Three holiest cities in Islam:
* Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem.
Essential Question:
Why was Islam
able to spread so
quickly and convert
so many to the new
religion?
The Spread of Islam

Easy to learn and practice.

No priesthood.

Teaches equality.

Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of
the Book,” were allowed religious
freedom, but paid additional taxes.
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Easily “portable”  nomads & trade
routes.

Jihad (“Holy War”) against pagans
Hinduism
Who – Ancient priests of India
When – 5000 –3000 BCE
Where – India
Holy Books – Vedas, Bhagavad-Gita
Major Divisions – Numerous schools
and traditions
Basic Beliefs
Polytheistic
Reincarnation and Karma – cause and
effect
Ultimate goal – oneness with
“Brahman” (God, Reality)
Holy
Sound
(symbol)
Om (also spelled Aum) is a Hindu sacred
sound that is considered the greatest of all
mantras.
The syllable Om is composed of the three
sounds a-u-m (in Sanskrit, the vowels a and u
combine to become o) and the symbol's
threefold nature is central to its meaning.
the three worlds - earth, atmosphere, and
heaven
the three major Hindu gods - Brahma, Vishnu,
and Siva
the three sacred Vedic scriptures - Rg, Yajur,
and Sama
Om mystically embodies the essence of the
entire universe. This meaning is further
deepened by the Indian philosophical belief
that God first created sound and the universe
arose from it. As the most sacred sound, Om is
the root of the universe and everything that
exists and it continues to hold everything
Hinduism
• Hindus share a
common view or the
world. They see
religion as a way of
liberating the souls
from the illusions,
disappointments and
mistakes of everyday
existence.
Hinduism
• The goal of Hinduism is
to reach Moska or a state
of perfect understanding
of things. There is Atman
the individual soul of a
living being and Brahman
the world soul that
contains and unites all
Atmans.
• Atman – Individual soul
• Brahman – world soul
that contains and unites
all atman.
Brahman and Atman
• When a person
understands the
relationship between
Atman and Brahman,
that person achieves
perfect understanding
and release from this
world.
• Usually does not
come in one lifetime.
Reincarnation
• They believe in
reincarnation
• Reincarnation means
rebirth. The soul is
reborn again and
again until Moskha is
reached.
Karma
• A soul’s karma or good or
bad deeds follows them
from one reincarnation to
another reincarnation.
• Karma influences specific
life circumstances such as
the castes one is born into
and one’s state of wealth
or property and so on
Brahman
• The world soul has
Brahman personalities
of three gods:
• Brahman – creator
• Vishnu – priest
• Shiva -
Hinduism
• Hinduism is both a way of life and a set of belief.
• Every individual must live according to his or her
own dharma or moral duty.
• All actions are rewarded – punished under the law
of karma
• People are reincarnated or reborn
• See all the worlds religions as a path to the same
goal.
Jainism
• Founder was
Mahavira
• Believed that
everything in the
universe has a soul
and should not be
harmed.
• Belief in non violence
and logical conclusion
Jainism
• Occupations must not
harm things or
creatures and so on.
• One of wealthiest
community in India.
• Total tolerance
Reincarnation and Karma:
Excerpts from Groundhog Day starring Bill Murray:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hq5jZrFTb
E&list=RD02eZbtAFq7dP8
Buddhism
Wheel of Dharma
Who – Siddhartha Gautama
(Buddha)
Circle of Zen
When – 500 BC
Where – Northern India
Holy Books - Tripitaka
Major Divisions – Mahayana,
Theravada
Basic Beliefs
Life is suffering, caused by
wanting things, caused by
ignorance.
Reincarnation and karma
“8-fold Path” allows escape to
Nirvana
Buddhism
• Founder Prince
Siddhartha Gautama.
• Began his life as a
Prince in a kingdom in
ancient India.
Siddhartha Gautama
• It was his search for
religious truths and an
end to life’s suffering
that led him to leave
the palace.
Prince Gautama
• Prince Gautama was born about 553 BCE.
He had parents who loved him and many
servants to wait on him, the finest clothes,
and a different palace for each season of the
year.
• Yet, he found his world full of suffering.
• It upset him that painful old age, sickness,
and death were all part of life in this world.
Prince becomes the Buddha
• He met a monk. He was amazed that this
monk could find calm and peace in a world
filled with such suffering.
• He mad a difficult decision and left his
wealth and his comfort, his wife and his
newborn son, to become a monk.
• *He searched for enlightenment and reason.
Buddha
• He spent 6 years
wondering and a 49
days in meditation
where he achieved the
understanding of the
cause of suffering.
• Upon his discovery,
he became known as
Buddha.
4 Noble Truths
• First sermon was done to introduce the 4
noble truths.
– Life is filled with suffering
– Suffering is caused by people’s wants.
– Suffering can be ended if people stop
wanting things, like more pleasure or more
power.
– To stop wanting things, people must follow 8
basic laws called the Eightfold Path.
8 Fold Path
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To know the truth
To intend to resist evil
To not say anything to hurt others
To respect life, property, and morality
To work at a job that does not injure others.
To try to free one’s mind from evil
To be in control of one’s feelings and thoughts.
To practice appropriate forms of
concentration.
The Middle Way
• The Eightfold Path
was designed to guide
people without
making life too strict
or too easy.
• The Middle Way is the
name Buddhists call
lives guided by the
laws of the Eightfold
Path.
Growth
• As time moved on, the
religion changed in
regards to Buddhism
– Some Buddhist began to
believe that many people
became Buddhist
– They could choose to give
up Nirvana and work to
save humanity through
good works and selfsacrifice
Laughing Buddha
• The laughing Buddha
reminds us that to be
happy we need to have a
loving heart. A big heart
gives you tolerance.
• It helps you to greet each
day with joy and all
people with gladness.
• It helps you to tolerate a
great many things with a
big happy simile that
reaches your eyes and
your heart.
Buddha says…..
• Buddha says that the best
way to solve a problem
we might have with
someone else is to have a
warm and living heart.
• By not being resentful, by
not bearing grudges, only
then are we able to smile
like the Buddha, only then
can we be truly happy.
Buddhism
• Buddhism teaches that being the greatest is an
absolute achievement free of comparison.
• What does that mean?
• It means that to be the greatest is not an
achievement that ca be attained through
competition. You cant win greatness but you can
achieve it. That means everyone ca be the
greatest.
Example
• Here's an example: For a healthy ant to
successfully carry one grain of rice is a great
achievement. For a healthy horse to successfully
carry one grain of rice is not all that terrific. The
ant has put his best effort into his job. It has
fulfilled its purpose as an ant. When this truth is
achieved, the ant is no longer just an ant. The ant
has moved into the realm of Truth - it has become
the greatest ant in the world
Buddhism
• Buddhism teaches that a person is successful not because
he or she is better than someone else, and not because they
received a higher grade on a test or won a Gold Medal at
the Olympics, or beat out other ants to see who could carry
the biggest and heaviest grain of rice.
• True achievement does not come from competition or
comparison. A person (or an ant, or a horse) is successful
because he or she has given their best within their means.
For this reason, every single person can become the
greatest person in the world, all at the same time.
Other Religions
Baha‘i: a religion founded in Iran in 1863 by Husayn ‫ع‬Alī
(called Bahaullah) teaching the essential worth of all
religions, the unity of all races, and the equality of the
sexes.
Confucianism: the system of ethics, education, and
statesmanship taught by Confucius, a Chinese
philosopher and his disciples, stressing love for humanity,
ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in
thought and conduct.
Jainism: a dualistic religion founded in the 6th century b.c. as
a revolt against current Hinduism and emphasizing the
perfectibility of human nature and liberation of the soul,
esp. through asceticism and nonviolence toward all living
creatures. In Jainism, nirvana means final release
from the karmic bondage.
Shinto: the native religion of Japan, primarily a system of
nature and ancestor worship.
Other Religions (cont.)
Sikhism: a monotheistic religion, founded in the Punjab c1500
by the guru Nanak, that refuses to recognize the Hindu caste
system or the Brahmanical priesthood and forbids magic,
idolatry, and pilgrimages.
Taoism: the philosophical system evolved by Lao-tzu and
Chuang-tzu, advocating a life of complete simplicity and
naturalness and of noninterference with the course of natural
events, in order to attain a happy existence in harmony with
the Tao.
Zoroastrianism: an Iranian religion, founded c600b.c.by
Zoroaster, the principal beliefs of which are in the existence
of a supreme deity, Ahura Mazda, and in a cosmic struggle
between a spirit of good, Spenta Mainyu, and a spirit of evil,
Angra Mainyu. Pre-Islam
The Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty
• Ruled china for more
than 400 years
• The Chinese became
known as “people of
the Han”
Lui Bang
• Ruler of Han Dynasty
was Liu Bang
• Brought Peace and
Stability
Accomplishments of Liu Bang
• Goals or accomplishments
–
–
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Destroy the rival kings power.
Establish a Centralized Government
End Legalism
Lower taxes
Soften harsh punishments
Wudi
• Wudi, grandson of Liu
Bang, came to power
and continued his
grandfathers
centralizing policies.
Wudi
• Ruled longer than any
other Han Emperor
• Called “The Martial
Emperor”
– Expanded Empire
through war
• Colonized the areas to
the northwest.
Han Dynasty
• Han Dynasty was very structured
• They intend to control people they conquered and
people at home
• The Han Dynasty believed:
– That the emperor has “divine authority” meaning that
they have a link between heaven and earth.
– If the emperor does a job well, China will have peace
and prosperity.
– The heavens showed their displeasure with
earthquakes, heavy rains, floods, etc.
Oracle Bone
• Oracle Bone began in the
Shang dynasty.
• Rituals were important
• Chief god – Shang Di
• If pleased, good harvest
if not, bad harvest
• King served as a ink
between heaven and earth.
• To find gods will, they
went to offering
sacrifices.
• Priest used “Oracle bone”
to consult ancestors.
• Oracle – consults with
God
• Question was written on a
goat or sheep bone.
• The bone was heated and
the Oracle reads the
cracks.
• This determined the rule
of the emperor or king
Han Dynasty cont.
• Had a complex bureaucracy.
• To function, they had to increase taxes on
citizens. This hurt the peasants most.
• The workers must pay back to the
government in work hours and military
service.
Civil Service Jobs
• Issued a series of Civil
Service jobs.
• The government jobs,
which were jobs that
civilians obtained by
taking exams.
• Tested most of the
time on their
knowledge of
Confucianism.
Chinese Invented
• Paper – before paper,
many times they
would write on silk
• Collar Harness
• Practiced assimilation
– helping to make
conqueror people part
of Chinese culture.
Encouraged
intermarriage
Problems with Han Dynasty
• Imbalance caused by customs that allowed
the rich to gain more wealth at the expense
of the poor.
• Land passed down got smaller
• Landowners didn’t have to pay taxes
• Political instability – one emperor after
another.
4 Major Philosophies of China
Confucianism
• Founded by Confucius
• Best known Chinese
philosopher
• Said that disorder and
suffering caused by
constant war disturbed hi
• Came up with ideas of
how to restore peace,and
harmony
Confucius
• Analects – his
teachings
• Came up with 5
relationships
5 Relationships
•
•
•
•
•
Ruler and Ruler
Father and Son
Older Brother and Younger Brother
Husband and Wife
Friend and Friend
5 Relationships
• One person has the
authority over another
in 1 – 4
• Superior person is
responsible for
inferior person
– Must set good
examples
Filial Piety
• Family is the key to
society
– Filial Piety
• Honor of Parents by
child.
• Proper behavior
based on ethical
or moral principles
• Family and good of
society above
individuals
Daoism
• Founded by Lao Zi
• Emphasis on link
between people and
nature
• Best way – Natural
Way or Dao
• Dao = Way
“Those who know the Dao don’t
speak it; those who speak it don’t
know it”
Inventions
• Best government has few
rules and laws
• Inventions:
– Magnetic compass for
favorable places for graves
– Some think they invented
gun powder
– Se of magic to
communicate with “other
side’
Legalism
• Most famous writer – Han
Feizi
• Rejected Confucius
thoughts about proper
behavior
• Acted out of self interest
• Don’t respond to goods,
rewards, punishment
• Ruler along has all the
power
Buddhism
• Spread along caravan
routes that linked India
and china
• Chinese linked Buddhism
• Offered escape from
suffering of earthly life
with salvation for those
who do good in life –
moral life and punishment
for the wicked
• Blended India thoughts
and Chinese thoughts
• Nirvana became the –
Western Haven- for
reflecting Chinese ideas
about the after life
• Emphasized Confucian
ideas of proper behavior
– Respect
– For family and ancestor
• And the Daoism view of
nature
• Confucianism and Daoism
– Ethics, living in harmony, Gods and Spirits
everywhere
• Buddhism – A true religion unlike the
others