Islam Powerpoint - Aurora Public Schools

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Transcript Islam Powerpoint - Aurora Public Schools

The Birth of Islam
The Basic Tenets of Islam
 The purpose of all Islamic teachings is the cleansing and
purification of the mind, body, and soul. This will bring success in the
current life and the next one.
 The three main beliefs in Islam:
1) There is only one god (Allah)
2) Belief in the prophets
3) Belief in the Day of Judgment
 The basic source of all religious teachings is the prophet of Allah
who is guided by Allah’s revelation. The prophet then reveals Allah’s
message to the people. Muhammad, being the last prophet, is the
most accurate and the source of all true guidance.
 Muhammad’s teachings can be found in two places; the Quran,
which is the book version, and the Sunnah, or tradition, which is the
practice of Islam as demonstrated by Muhammad.
The Birth of Islam
The Basic Tenets of Islam
 The three main beliefs in Islam:
1) There is only one god (Allah)
 This is the most basic element of Islam
 Muslims believe Allah revealed himself in the Quran
 Allah’s characteristics include:
Omnipotence (he can do what he wants, all-powerful)
Omniscience (he is all-knowing)
The Birth of Islam
The Basic Tenets of Islam
 The three main beliefs in Islam:
2) Belief in the prophets
 Muslims are required to believe in the prophets, which
Abraham, Lot, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, and
 Although some of these prophets’ messages have been
altered by their followers, Muslims must believe that esentially
all the prophets gave the same message to mankind.
 As the last of these prophets, Muhammad earns a special
The Basic Tenets of Islam
 The three main beliefs in Islam:
3) Belief in the Day of Judgment
 Muslims are required to believe that one day, Allah, with
absolute justice and mercy, will separate the good from the evil.
 Those who are found to be good will be rewarded with eternal
bliss in the “Kingdom of Heaven.”
 Those who are found to be evil will be damned to hellfire.
 On that Day of Judgment those who are found good will have
strived to cleanse their body, soul, and mind of all impurities.
 The Quran and the Sunnah show the way to do this cleansing.
The Birth of Islam
The Basic Tenets of Islam
 All Islamic teachings can be divided into two parts:
1) The Hikmah (or the Islamic philosophy); and
2) The Shari`ah (or the Islamic law).
The Hikmah includes the following topics:
beliefs in Allah, the prophets and the Day of Judgment;
good and evil, ethics and morality, the design of the
human being
The Shari`ah includes the following topics:
rules for worship, social, economic, and political
interactions; rules for the propagation of Islam, Jihad
(holy war), punishments; Muslim etiquette and symbols
The Birth of Islam
The Basic Tenets of Islam
 The Five Pillars of Islam
These are the elements of Islam that make it distinct from
the other religions of the world.
1) to declare that there is only One God and that Muhammad is
a true prophet of God;
2) to offer five prayers during the day;
3) to follow the directives of the Shari`ah in supporting the
4) to fast during the month of Ramadan; and
5) to undertake Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca, if one has the ability
to do so.
The Birth of Islam
The Birth of Islam
 Muhammad was born in Mecca (570 C.E.), the location of an
important shrine called the Ka’ba, which was associated with
the story of Abraham sacrificing his son.
 The Bible tells of Abraham, whose faith was tested by God
when he was asked to sacrifice his only (legitimate) son Isaac.
Before he actually killed him, God stopped him, his faith
 Muslims believe the son was actually Ishmael, who was the
son of Abraham with one of his concubines named hagar.
 According to the Bible, Ishmael is the father of the Arabs,
which translates to “nomads” and shouldn’t suppose that all
Arabs today descend from him.
 Muhammad claimed to be a descendent of Ishamel, but his
genealogy is actually disputed.
The Birth of Islam
The Birth of Islam
 In 610 Muhammad began meditating at night, and one night
the angel Gabriel (from the Bible as well) spoke to him, giving
him revelations from Allah.
 The revelations continued for about 20 years until his death.
In that time he shared his revelations to his closest friends and
 Muslims believe the revelations of Muhammad are superior to
that of the Bible because it did not go through an editing
process like the Bible did.
 When Muhammad died, his close friends decided that Abu
Bakr should succeed him, calling him the “successor” or
 Abu Bakr is credited with the Five Pillars and the creation of
the Quran, which was the written version of the revelations of
Allah to Muhammad.
The Birth of Islam
The Birth of Islam: Shi’ites vs. Sunnis
How it started:
 Muhammad had praised his son in-law Ali publicly, leading
some to believe he was the natural successor to Muhammad.
When Muhammad died, Abu Bakr was quickly chosen, and the
two others succeeded him before the debate began in earnest.
 Those who believed that Ali was the natural successor of
Muhammad called themselves Shi’ites (from Shi’at ali, or “Party
of Ali”)
 Those who believed leadership should be determined by the
community of believers.
 Ali became the caliph (successor to Muhammad) on the 4th
try. This immediately led to battles over succession.
The Birth of Islam
The Birth of Islam: Shi’ites vs. Sunnis
How it started:
 Mu’awhiya from the Umayyad clan renewed the challenge
with more battles, all inconclusive. Arbitrators had to decide the
winner, saying Ali shouldn’t have accepted the position. Soon
after, Ali was assassinated.
 Mu’awhiya let Ali’s son retire gracefully and then chose his
own son to be the new caliph.
 One of Ali’s other children tried to reinstate his family’s rule,
and when his family was killed, the supporters of Ali (Shi’ites)
gained solidarity.
 This conflict turned Shi’ism into a religious sect rather than a
political one.
 A third sect formed, called the Kharijites, were the ones who
were angry that Ali had accepted the caliphate position, but
were still his followers. This sect still exists but is insignificant.
The Birth of Islam
Shi’ites vs. Sunnis Today
 Sunnis regard themselves as Muslims, worshipping and practicing
Islam in truth. They believe Shi’ism is its own religion and there is no
such thing as a “Shi’ite Muslim.” There is no chance of the two
groups uniting under Islam.
 Regarding various elements of Islam:
The Quran:
Sunnis: The Quran is the perfect revelation of Allah and is eternal.
Shi’ites: The conflict surrounding the time of the creation of the
Quran leads to some doubt regarding its authenticity.
The Hadiths (truths):
Sunnis: The hadiths are the second source of revealed truth
regarding the practice of Islam.
Shi’ites: They reject ¾ of the hadiths.
The Birth of Islam
Shi’ites vs. Sunnis Today
The Shar’ia (Islamic Law):
Sunnis: Islamic law is complete; Muhammad did not withhold any
important information that would be helpful to his followers.
Shi’ites: Real truth is limited to the knowledge of the Imams (religious
leaders) who are also the only ones who can communicate with
Sunnis: The caliph should be an elected leader, based on his proven
trustrworthiness. He can be removed from his responsibilities if he
shows he cannot rule properly in accordance with Islamic law.
Shi’ites: Rule is hereditary (remember they wanted Ali and his
descendents to rule) and they will not be loyal to anyone but who is
in the right hereditary line. In the absence of a possible heir, they
believe the final ruler will arise at the end of time, kill all its political
opponents, and restore Shi’ite rule.
The Birth of Islam
Shi’ites vs. Sunnis Today
 85% of Muslims are Sunnis
 The Iranian Revolution in 1979 began a time of radical Shi’ite
movements across the Middle East
 In countries with large Shi’ite communities, Shi’ites often make up
the poorest sections of society and see themselves as oppressed
and discriminated against.
 In many countries the two communities live separate lives.
However, in Iraq intermarriage between Sunnis and Shia was
common until recently.
 In Lebanon, Shias have gained widespread respect and a strong
political voice due to the political and military activities of Hezbollah.
 Shia Muslims are in the majority in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and,
according to some estimates, Yemen. There are large Shia
communities in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, India, Kuwait, Lebanon,
Pakistan, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE.
Shi’ites vs. Sunnis Today
The Birth of Islam
Shi’ites vs. Sunnis Today: The case of Iraq
 Iraq is in a civil war:
Sunnis vs. Shi’ites.
 Under Saddam Hussein
(a Sunni) the government
was secularized. Iraq
became the only Persian
Gulf nation to not be ruled
under Shar’ia (Islamic
 Saddam’s government rested on 20% of the population,
mostly lower class Sunnis. The majority of Iraqis were Shi’as
and their movements, along with the political movements of the
Kurds (a group of Sunni Muslims who are not Arab) were his
biggest internal concerns.
 Iraq came under Shi’a rule with American occupation in 2005.
The Birth of Islam
Shi’ites vs. Sunnis Today
Sunnis prefer suicide bombings, and Shias prefer death squads.
 In Iran, there is a 90% Shia majority, and the constitution
follows Shia theology
 Sunnis in Iran complain of discrimination, particularly in
government, but also in representation. There is no Sunni
mosque in Tehran (Iran’s capital), though there are Christian
 Arabism is different than Islam. The Pan-Arab movement seeks
the creation of an all-Arab state, free from Western colonization
and interference. Saddam Hussein was a huge support of PanArabism.
 Al-Qaida is an extreme Sunni group, seeking to make Islamist
societies, including in Iraq, which is used to being under secular
rule. It is traced back to Osama bin Laden, who gained popularity
in Afghanistan.
The Arab World today