Buddhism - bYTEBoss

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Transcript Buddhism - bYTEBoss

The Path to Enlightenment
The Way of Siddhartha
 563 BC – Life of Siddhartha Gautama (1st Buddha)
 270 BC – Life of Indian King, Ashoka
 Spread Buddhism to Sri Lanka, India, and parts of China
 Advocated a nation of “non-violence” after having many wars
 50 AD – Buddhism enters China
 520 AD – Meditation School established in China
 630 AD – Buddhism enters Tibet
 820 AD – Tendai and Shingon Buddhism in Japan
 1200 AD – Zen Buddhism grows in Japan
 1952 AD – Founding of the World Fellowship of Buddhists
 1989 AD – Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the Dalai Lama
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Siddhartha Gautama – 600’s BC – the first Buddha
Born the son of a prince in Nepal, but mother (who has a legendary dream) dies a week after
his birth
 Prophecy after birth: He could take one of two paths
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His father ensured (because of the prophecy) that Siddhartha avoid exposure to suffering
He married and had a son, was educated, and was trained to become a warrior
One day, he disobeyed his father and left the family compound and saw Four Passing Sights
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So, Siddhartha adopted a “Middle Path” (not indulgence but not starvation)
Sat under a Bodhi Tree
After a night of intense thinking, he reached Enlightenment or Awakening (Bodhi)
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Old Man (crooked and toothless)
Sick Man (wasted by disease)
Dead Man (corpse being taken to cremation)
Holy Man (a wandering monk)
At 30, he left his family in the middle of the night to seek answers to his questions
Siddhartha starved himself in order to try to understand and answer the questions (it almost
killed him, Starved Buddha)
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A Great World Ruler
A Great World Teacher
He found that suffering was part of life, but there could be release
Buddha – one who is Enlightened
He began teaching his 5 friends what he had learned
At 80, he got food poisoning and died. He turned on his side (Reclining Buddha)
 The Buddha – the one who has gained Enlightenment
 This is not a set number of people, and the hope of
Buddhism is that all people may become Enlightened
 Even if one follows Buddhism closely, this is supremely
difficult
 Ideal for all humans, not taught to be dead but existing
in timelessness
 The Dharma – the sum total of Buddhist teachings
and the way in which one should view the world
 This will vary based on whichever school of Buddhism is
followed
 The Sangha – community of nuns and monks
 The three marks of reality are the Buddhist Worldview
 1) Change is Constant
 One of the many reasons we feel pain (Buddhists: the primary reason)
is change
 But, we feel pain because we do not expect change
 Therefore, expect change in all things (life, image, definitions, friends,
attitudes, etc.)
 2) There is No Permanent Identity
 Every person is made up of parts that are constantly changing
 Anatta – or “no atman”, there is no constant identity or soul of a person;
the parts are constantly changing
 The Car Analogy
 3) Suffering Exists
 Dukkha – suffering or sorrow
 Life can never be satisfying because it is constantly filled with change
 Suffering is inescapable
 So, therefore, understand and master suffering and its causes
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First Noble Truth: To Live is to Suffer
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Birth is painful, disease is painful, and death is painful
Seems pessimistic, but it is actually just reality
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Pessimistic – the outlook that things are bad (not good)
Second Noble Truth: Suffering Comes from Desire
Suffering comes from not being content with what we have or holding on too tightly to
what we have
 Craving cannot be appeased, so it will continue
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Third Noble Truth: To End Suffering, End Desire
Any kind of attachment will cause trouble eventually
To be a monk is best, but not all can
Layperson Re-interpretation: “Everyone should live peacefully, realizing suffering happens,
but attempt to live for inner peace”
 Layperson – one who is not a religious leader
 Emotional Neutrality - never taking the extremes with emotion
 “I cannot change the world, but I can change myself and my experience of the world”
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Fourth Noble Truth: Release from Suffering is Possible and Can be Attained by Following
the Noble 8-Fold Path
Nirvana – ending of suffering, achievement of inner peace, and liberation from worldly
limitations
 When Nirvana is reached, karma and rebirth are ended. (Cut off the flame to samsara)
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Right Understanding – holding to the Buddhist worldview
Right Intention – Intentions are not motivated by selfish
desires
Right Speech – Speak honestly and kindly; No lies,
exaggeration, or harsh words
Right Action – I do not hurt that which can feel hurt;
Avoidance of stealing and sexual conduct leading to hurt
Right Work – My work does no harm to others
Right Effort – With moderation, I seek to improve
Right Meditation – I focus on the true reality and the nature
of being more deeply
Right Contemplation – I attempt to cultivate inner peace
 Ahimsa – the concept of “nonharm”
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Causing suffering to any being is cruelty and unnecessary
Not just physical pain; any pain should be avoided
Every being that feels can suffer
Promotes: Vegetarian or Semivegetarian Diet
Avoid Jobs: Soldier, butcher, fishermen, hunter, weapon maker, etc.
 Rebirth – parts passing between bodies after death
 Not reincarnation (transfer of an unchanging, eternal soul)
 Rather, this is the transfer of “parts” of one’s personality between
new bodies
 Karma – concept that one gets what one deserves
 Unlike Hinduism, Buddhism believes this is an element attached to
one’s personality (not one’s soul)
 Samsara – endless cycle of birth and rebirth
 Liberation from samsara is attained through “gaining” Nirvana
 Possible in one life, but it often takes more than one life
 Buddha eliminated ritual strivings (i.e. puja) that
characterized the Hindu “Way of Works”
 Buddha did not believe the Vedas to be authoritative
 Buddhism has no orthodox scriptures
 Some have written the sayings of the Buddha, but those
are not considered “holy”
 Buddha eliminated the Caste System
 As, he found it inconsistent with no harm, human
rights, and his ever-changing world
 Buddha believed the world is real
 Whereas, Hinduism believes that the world is merely an
illusion
 Theravada - “The Way of the Elders”
 This is the “orthodox” or original version
 Orthodox – the accepted opinion or path
 This group is solely focused on gaining Nirvana
 The main groups who benefit from this sect is the monks
 Non-monks support the monks
 Monks were orange robes, beg daily for food, and receive donations
in order to survive
 Called Hinayana (“the Little Raft”) by opponents
 Text: Tripitaka – Three sections (Monastic Rules, Sayings of
Buddha, and Teachings)
 Art: 8-Spoked Wheel (the symbol of Buddhism), Stupas
 Stupas – large mounds over the bodies of former Buddhas
 Mostly in Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, and Sri Lanka
 Mahayana Buddhism – The “Big Vehicle”
 Emphasizes the idea that nirvana is attainable by everyone (more than
just the priests)
 Karuna - Compassion – “everyone must save themselves by saving
others”
 We are all from the same origins and essence, so kindness shown to others IS
kindness shown to self
 Bodhisattva – one who delays full enlightenment in order to bring
others to enlightenment
 Guanyin – most famous heavenly (dead) bodhisattva
 The Trikaya Doctrine – the idea that there is 3 “bodies” of the Buddha
 Cosmic Buddha – the universal and eternal essence form which the Buddha
came
 Transformation Buddha – the physical form of one who reaches enlightenment
 Maitreya – Future Buddha – a Buddha who will come and tell the world how to
gain enlightenment (Mi-lo-fo – Laughing Buddha)
 Hope to dwell in the eternal “Buddha Land” after enlightenment
 Shunyata – the idea that all things are “emptiness”
 Veneration of ancestors and former Buddhas
 Sects: Shingon, Tendai, Pure Land, Nichiren, and Zen
 Zen – strict meditation school of Buddhism
 Vajrayana Buddhism – the “Diamond Vehicle”
 Largely founded in Tibet
 This branch has the belief that the body and its energies
are not bad, but they should be channeled to reach
enlightenment
 A return to Hindu-like ritual
 Strict Monasticism is asked from the groups, especially
the Gelug-pa sect
 Dalai Lama – the executive head of the Gelug-pa
 Line of succession? – rebirth solves the problem
 Vajra – ritual divination rod
 Mudras – symbolic hand gestures
 Right hand with fingers up – Blessing
 Palm open and hand downward - Generosity
 Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in
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1989
Found in Eastern Tibet because of
an oracle interpreted by monks (49
days after the previous Dalai Lama’s
death)
His name was/is Tenzen Gyatso
The monks brought hundreds of
items (mixed with a few items of
the previous Dalai Lama)
He correctly identified all of the
items (and only the items) owned
by the former Dalai Lama
Thus, he proved that he was the
former Dalai Lama
He currently lives in exile in India
 Art and Culture
 Haiku – a short expressive poem that tries to capture an image or
ideal
 Sado – the tradition of offering tea to guests
 Garden Design – gardens are designed for beauty as well as
contemplation / A walk around the garden is an experience in
meditation
 Meditation – few images of Buddhism are more common than a
monk or person in a state of meditation, focus, or mindfulness
 Politics
 Non-violence, environmental activism, human rights, universal
peace and disarmament
 Theology and Worldview
 Buddhism is a traditional Atheistic religion
 It is also an intensely Realistic religious worldview
 And, it is openly Non-Exclusive as a religious movement