Executive Function Skills and ADHD

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Transcript Executive Function Skills and ADHD

LAUREN STEWART, M.R.C
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR
_______________________________________________________________________
8100 Lomo Alto Drive Suite 100 Dallas, TX 75225 Office: (214) 351.0053 Fax: (214) 351.5581
www.drmhousson.com . www.coachingforacademicsuccess.com
Coaching for Academic
Success (CFAS)

Private, one-on-one coaching
Less
conflict between parents and children
over homework
In-home
instruction (convenient & fewer
distractions)
Individual
attention (productive time, based on
unique needs)
Academic
monitoring (accountability & time
management)
Weekly
feedback for parents on student's
progress, preparedness & motivation.
What is Executive
Functioning (EF)?
The Executive Functions are a set of
neurologically-based skills that have to do with
managing oneself and one’s resources in order
to achieve a goal. How efficiently you do what
you decide to do.



Located primarily in the Prefrontal Cortex of
the brain (the last part to develop)
Often referred to as the CEO of the brain,
coordinating and managing many cognitive
functions
Typically fully developed by 25 – 30 years of
age
Initiation/Activation
(To begin a task or activity)
Focus
(Sustaining & shifting)
Planning and Organizing
Executive
Function: The
Board of Directors
(Creating & prioritizing)
Effort
(Alertness & processing speed)
Memory
(Working memory & recall)
Action
(Monitoring and regulating)
Emotional Regulation
(Managing frustration &
emotions)
Modifying the
Environment

Remove the decision making from your
child until they are ready

Change the physical or social
environment

Change the nature if the tasks your child
is expected to perform

Change the way you interact with your
child
Eliciting Effective Behavior

Verbal Scaffolding

Identifying the problem behavior

Set goals
 Involve
 Set
the child in goal setting
interim goals

Outline steps the child needs to follow to reach
goals

Turns the steps into a checklist or set of rules

Supervise the child following the procedure

Fade the supervision
Identifying Incentives and
Consequences

Describe the problem behavior and set a
goal

Decide on possible rewards and
contingencies

Write a behavior contract

Evaluate the process and makes
changes if necessary
Planning/Time
Management

Allow 5 minutes at the end of class to write down
assignments

Be descriptive in planner i.e. “Math problems 9-22”
rather than “Math”

How long will it take you to complete each assignment?

Create long-term plans for semester projects

Monthly calendars

Coming up with a system that maximizes your time

Asking a friend if unsure of assignment
Strategies for Agenda
Books

Use agenda as personal calendar


Drs. appts, social plans, tutors, errands, etc.
Teach shorthand

B for binder, H for handout

Include time estimates for assignments in a consistent form

Include specific tasks for studying for quizzes and tests

Work backwards from the test date to assign tasks

Break down long-term projects and studying tasks

Draw a single line through completed work

Circle incomplete tasks if not done and transfer to a new day
Strategies for Organization
and Time Management

Make use of online classroom websites to aid in
organization and break down longer assignments
with interim due dates

Color code each subject

Nicky folders and accordion folders

Provide target midpoint completion times for tests
and in class assignment times as guidance

“Master Binder”

An opportunity to clean out and reorganize binders
Studying

Prioritizing

Finish hardest assignments first and then work on
easier ones

Get everything finished that is due the next day

Take breaks

Something active

Find a quiet place with minimal distractions

Have all materials you need to complete HW

Projects

Break down into small manageable pieces (an
hour at time)
Strategies for Getting the
Most out of Homework
Teach students an overall plan for approaching
homework
 Teach that time, like money, is limited.



The more you spend on one thing, the less you have to
spend on another!
Work smart and take charge of your time!
Nota Bene:
You should always be teaching how (the process of planning
and remembering).
“We are building your Executive Function skills.”
Strategies for Sustaining
Attention


Awareness

How do you focus best (where you sit, what is
around you, etc.)

What distracts you?

What can you change or control?
Setting a Personal Goal

How long can you pay attention now?

What are reasonable short and long-term goals?
Strategies for Sustaining
Attention

Action
 Write
down the goal: “I will be present for 10 minutes”
 Visualize
stronger
the brain working, making connections, getting
 Commit
to having willpower to resist distractions
(Mindfulness)
 Believe
you can!
 Have
a pad to jot down distracting thoughts
 Have
a timer to monitor progress
 Acknowledge
 Mark
progress and commit to improve next time
on a paper each time you “disconnect” and
challenge yourself to reduce the time you are “away”
Working Memory
The mental workspace where we
manipulate information, facts, and ideas.
Effective working memory requires the ability
to:



Pull information from memory

Hold it in mind (attention and concentration)

Manipulate the information (cognitive
flexibility and sequencing)
Working memory is sensitive to anxiety,
stress, and pressure
Strategies to Increase
Memory

Use a different learning style each time you teach
the material

Retrieval improves when students can visualize
information in categories especially when they
create the categories themselves

Produce a product, draw a picture, make a model

Review information after 4-7 items are taught to
avoid forgetting

Review multiple times so that the neurons fire
more than once
Strategies for Increasing and
Improving Output

Computers/Ipads

Monitor self-control and distractions

Ignore spelling and grammar during first draft

Turn paper sideways for math

Create and post a list of shorthand for common words
and phrases


Apply this skill to other settings
Allow alternate methods for demonstrating knowledge
and mastery
Tools to Reduce Stress!

Notice your body – breathing, posture

Visualize yourself moving OUT of the problem

Shift your focus – from Problem to Goal

Notice the words you are telling yourself


Are they absolutes and judgements? “Must” “Fail” “Bad”
Rate the difficult of doing the task from 1 to 10

If the task feels like 10, can you break it into smaller
steps? Find a step to start with that is lower on the
scale.

Acknowledge your feelings; Try to name the emotion

Rate your emotions from 1 to 10
Becoming the Best CEO of
Your Brain!





Model how you use your own Executive
Functions by demonstrating and talking
about your process
Provide visual supports for as much as you
can
Help them break steps for easier learning and
performing
Give them opportunities to figure things out
on their own without worry of pressure or
grades
Provide support and guidance as they
experiment finding their own best way
Doing
Knowing
Setting Goals

Long term vs. Short term

Creating goals that work



SMART goals
Creating goals for different areas of your life:

Social

Family

School

Personal

Physical
Examples? Possible obstacles?
Resources

Helpful Resources

Smart But Scattered- Peg Dawson

www.addresources.org

www.addwarehouse.com

www.chadd.org

www.add.org
Questions, Comments,
Concerns?