Richard J. Gerrig, Ph.D. and Philip Zimbardo, Ph.D.

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Transcript Richard J. Gerrig, Ph.D. and Philip Zimbardo, Ph.D.

Chapter 7
Memory
Chapter 7 Preview
What Is Memory?
Memory Use for the Short Term
Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval
Structures in Long-Term Memory
Biological Aspects of Memory
Memory
What is Memory?
Capacity to encode, store,
and retrieve information
Types of Memory
Explicit Memory
• Conscious effort
Implicit Memory
• Availability of
to recover
information
information
through memory
without
conscious effort
Types of Memory
Declarative
Procedural
Memory
Memory
• Information (e.g.
facts and events)
• How tasks are
carried out
Memory Processes
Retrieval
Storage
Encoding
• Mental
representation is
formed in memory
• Retention of
encoded material
• Recovery of stored
information
What’s Wrong With This Picture?
The Flow of Information In and Out of Long
Term Memory
Let’s do a demonstration of the
impermanence of some memories!
Look at the following
visual scene for about 10
seconds …
How
much can
you
remember
from this
scene?
Memory Use for the Short -Term
What tool was the little boy at the bottom holding?
What is the middle man at the top doing?
In the lower right hand corner, does the woman’s
umbrella handle hook to the left or to the right?
Iconic Memory
Iconic Memory
George
Sperling
Visual
Partial-report
memory
procedure
Eidetic
imagery
Recall by the Partial-Report Method
Short –Term Memory
Preservation of recent
experiences
Short-term Memory
Retrieval of
information from longterm memory
Short –Term Memory
Capacity
Limits of STM
Memory Span
George Miller
7 (plus or
minus 2)
Short –Term Memory
Rehearsal
Maintenance rehearsal
Process of reconfiguring
Chunking
items by grouping them on
basis of similarity or some
other organizing principle
Short-Term Memory Recall without
Rehearsal
Working Memory
• Reasoning and language
Working
Memory
comprehension
• Phonological loop, visuospatial
sketchpad, central executive,
episodic buffer (Baddeley, 2002,
2003)
Sample Item from a Test of Operation Span
Long-Term Memory
Long-term Memory
(LTM)
Storehouse of all experiences, events, information,
emotions, skills words, categories, rules, and judgments
acquired from sensory and short term memories
Preservation of information for retrieval at any later time
Long-Term Memory
Retrieval Cues
Recall
Recognition
Long-Term Memory
Episodic
• Memories for
memory
experienced
things personally
Semantic
memory
• Generic,
categorical
memories
Dimensions of Long-Term Memory
Context and Encoding
Subsequent retrieval
of information
Encoding
Specificity
IF
cues retrieved at
time of recall are
consistent with those
present at time of
encoding
Context and Encoding
Recall of
Serial
beginning and
Position
end items in list
Effect
• Primacy Effect
• Recency Effect
Serial Position Effect
Context and Encoding
Extent to which
particular item
Temporal
Distinctiveness
stands out from
or is distinct from
other items in
time
Temporal Distinctiveness
Process of Encoding and Retrieval
Levels of
Processing
• Information processed
at deeper level is more
likely to be retained
Processes of Encoding and Retrieval
Transfer-appropriate
Processing
• Memory is best when type of
processing carried out at
encoding matches processes
carried out at retrieval
Processes of Encoding and Retrieving
Levels of Processing
Theory
• Suggests the deeper the
level at which information is
processed, the more likely it
is to be retrieved in memory
Why We Forget
“Facts crammed at examination time soon
vanish, if they were not grounded by other
study and later subjected to a sufficient
review.” (Hermann Ebbinghaus, 1865)
Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve
Why We Forget
Retroactive
interference
Proactive interference
• Information acquired in
Interference
• Retrieval cues do not point
effectively to one specific
memory
past makes it more difficult
to acquire new information
• Acquisition of new
information makes it
difficult to remember old
information
Proactive and Retroactive Interference
Improving Memory for Unstructured
Information
Elaborative
Rehearsal
• Improving
memory by
enriching
encoding of
information
Mnemonics
• Method of Loci
Metamemory
• Cue familiarity
• Peg-word
Hypothesis
Method
• Accessibility
Hypothesis
Critical Thinking in Your Life
• How can memory research help you
prepare for exams?
• Refer to page 192 of your text to find out!
Structures in Long Term Memory
Prototypes
Hierarchies
Concepts
Categorization
Basic Levels
Memory
Structures
Schemas
Hierarchically Organized Structure of
Concepts
Structures in Long Term Memory
Prototype
Exemplars
Using
Memory
Structures
Theories of Categorization
Remembering: Reconstructive Process
Leveling
Reconstructive Memory
Sharpening
Assimilating
Remembering: Reconstructive Process
Richly detailed memory in
Flashbulb Memory
response to personal or public
events that have great emotional
significance
Psychology in Your Life
How can you benefit from the “testing
effect”?
Remembering: Reconstructive Process
Elizabeth Loftus
Eyewitness Memory
Misinformation effect
Biological Aspects of Memory
• Cerebellum
The Engram
• Striatum
• Cerebral cortex
Biological Aspects of Memory
• Amygdala and
Hippocampus
The Engram
• Declarative memory of
facts, dates, and
names
• Memories of emotional
significance
Brain Structure Involved in Memory
Memory Disorders
• Failure of memory caused
by physical injury,
Amnesia
disease, drug use, or
psychological trauma
• Anterograde
• Retrograde
Brain Imaging
Functional
Magnetic
PET Scans
Resonance
Imaging
(fMRI)
Brain Activity for Encoding and Retrieval
Recapping Chapter 7 Main Points
What Is Memory?
• Types of memory
• Memory process
Memory for the Short Term
• Iconic memory
• Short-term memory
• Working memory
Recapping Chapter 7 Main Points
Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval
• Retrieval cues
• Context and encoding
• Encoding and retrieval
• Why we forget
• Improving memory
• Metamemory
Recapping Chapter 7 Main Points
Structures in Long-Term Memory
• Memory structures
• Remembering as a reconstructive process
Biological Aspects of Memory
• Searching for the engram
• Amnesia
• Brain imaging