Information Processing Theory

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Transcript Information Processing Theory

Information Processing
Theory
EDU 330: Educational Psychology
Daniel Moos
Why is a manhole cover
round?
“Phraseology” example
Tall in the the saddle
Guiding Question: What does this activity suggest about
the role of prior knowledge and experience in learning?
In 1763 Marian and the settlements ended a sevenyear war with the Langurians and Pitoks. As a result of
this war Languia was driven out of East Bacol. Marain
would now rule Laman and other lands that had
belonged to Languia. This brought peace to Bacolian
settlements. The settlers no longer had to fear attacks
from Laman. The Bacolians were happy to be part of
Marain in 1763. Yet a dozen years later, these same
people would be fighting the for independence (Beck
and Mckeown, 1993, p.2)
In 1763 Britain and the settlements ended a sevenyear war with the French and Native Americans. As a
result of this war, the French were driven out of North
America. Britain would now rule Canada and other
lands that had belonged to the French. This brought
peace to the North American settlements. The settlers
no longer had to fear attacks from Canada. The North
Americans were happy to be part of Britain in 1763.
Yet a dozen years later, these same people would be
fighting the for independence.
Guiding Question: What does this activity suggest about the role of prior
knowledge and experience in learning? Implications for teachers?
“Numbers” example
318 6054 7
04 152015
Guiding Question: What does this activity suggest about the
importance of organization in learning? What does this activity
suggest about the maximum number of items we can learn at one
time? Implications for teachers?
“Months” example
As quickly as you can…
…state the months of the year
…state the months of the year, alphabetically
Guiding Question: What does this activity suggest about the role
of how we originally learn in retrieving this knowledge?
Implications for teachers?
“Association” example
In a moment, you will read a common, everyday word.
As soon as you read it, write down the first that
comes into your head. Then write down the first
word that that word reminds you of. Continue writing
down the first word that each successive words
brings to mind until you generated a list of 10 words
Example: Minnesota
Cold
Ice Cream Moose Tracks
Activity: Beach
Guiding Question: What does this activity suggest about how we
organize our “long-term” memory? Implications for teachers?
“Categorization” example
In a moment, you will be presented with 12
words and asked to memorize them.
shirt
carrot
pants
chair
table
bed
potatoes
shoe
hat
squash
bench
bean
In what order did you recall them? Did you
recall them in the order in which you read
them?
Guiding Question: What does this activity suggest about how the
importance of organization in facilitating learning? Implications for
teachers?
“Riding a bike” example
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On a scale of 1 (very poorly) to 5 (very easily), how
well can you ride a bike?
Turn to your neighbor and discuss how you would
teach someone who does not know how to ride a
bike
On a scale of 1 (very hard) to 5 (very easy),
describe the difficulty level you just experienced in
describing how you might teach someone to ride a
bike
Why might there be a discrepancy between your
“expertise” and ability to teach?
Guiding Question: What does this activity suggest about the
challenges “experts” might face in teaching novices? Implications
for teaching?
“Color” example
As quickly as you can, quietly say the COLOR and not the
pronunciation of the following words (from left to right):
Example: Yellow
Blue
RED
BLACK BLUE
BLACK
BLACK RED
YELLOW BLUE
YELLOW
BLACK
RED
RED
YELLOW
RED
BLACK BLUE
YELLOW BLUE
BLACK
BLACK
Guiding Question: What does this activity suggest about the role
of “attention” and “perception” in learning? Implications for
teachers?
Cognitive processes:
IPT Model
Assumptions of each “stage”
The Sensory Memory

Capacity
 Very large

Duration
 1 to 3 seconds

Contents
 Raw sensory data (encoded in same form as
perceived)
The Sensory Memory
and Its Control Processes

Recognition
 Noting key features of a stimulus and relating
them to already stored information

Attention
 Selective focusing on a portion of the information
currently stored in the sensory register
 What we attend to is influenced by information in
long-term memory
“Phraseology”
example
Tall in the the saddle
“Color”
example
Selecting
focusing
Working Memory
(also called:Short-Term Memory)

Capacity
 7 +/- 2 chunks of information

Duration
 20 to 30 seconds

Contents
 What you are currently thinking about
(information from the sensory register and
information from long term memory)
Working Memory
(also called:Short-Term Memory)
Control process

Rehearsal
 Maintenance Rehearsal
– Repeating information over and over again; no
(or minimal) effect on long-term memory storage
 Elaborative Rehearsal
– Relating new information to knowledge already
stored in long-term memory
“Numbers” example
Date is relevant/longterm memory
“Words” example
2nd list of words
meaningful
Working Memory
(also called:Short-Term Memory)
Control processes, continued

Organization
 Putting interrelated pieces of information into
chunks
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Meaningfulness
 When new material can be related to information
in long-term memory

Visual Imagery Encoding
 Generating images in your mind of objects,
ideas, and actions
“Numbers” example
Chunking numbers
into date
Cognitive processes:
Metacognition (II)
Total Processing Space in Working Memory
(short-term memory)
Operating
Space
Storage
Space
Cognitive Processes:
IPT application (I)
 Reducing
cognitive load:
Overcoming limitations of working
memory
Chunking
 Automaticity
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Is it effective to multi-task?…only if you are
an “expert” with at least one of the tasks…
Dual-Coding Theory
Short-term Memory and
Its Control Processes
Research Findings
Implications
Rehearsal important.
2nd graders can do
independently.
Teach rehearsal
techniques.
Organization of material
into chunks makes it much
easier to remember.
Teachers’
Organization!!!!
Teach how to organize
Short-term Memory and
Its Control Processes (cont’d)
Research Findings
Meaningful learning =
relate new information to
old information.
Implications
Know your students! What
do they already know?
What interests them?
Visual imagery is easier to Teach visual imagery as a
recall than abstractions.
learning tool.
Long-Term Memory

Capacity
 Unlimited

Duration
 Permanent, long-term
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Contents
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Schema (or “schemata”), which affect information
in short term memory (i.e. misconceptions)
Explicit knowledge: knowledge we CAN easily
recall and explain
Implicit knowledge: knowledge we CANNOT
easily recall and explain
“Riding a bike” example “Association” &
Implicit vs. explicit “Categorization example
Cognitive processes:
Forgetting
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Why do we “forget” information?
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Encoding is the key to retrieval
Retrieval failure may be due to encoding
Example: State the months of the year
Example: State the months of the year alphabetically
Why is it more difficult to state the months of the year
alphabetically?
Diversity in backgrounds influences encoding and
retrieval
Cognitive dissonance
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Hot vs. Cold cognition
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Example: I just recently read a story about some
advanced technologies that measure metacognition.
How do you think that made me feel and not just think?
What benefits arise from situations that result in hot
cognition?
Cognitive dissonance: Information strongly
contradicts something we know or strongly believe
to be true.

Result can be either a help (with an open mind) or
hinderance
Cognitive processes:
Applying IPT to the classroom
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Begin lessons with an activity that attracts
attention.
Conduct frequent reviews to activate students’
prior knowledge and check their perceptions.
Proceed in short steps and represent content both
visually and verbally to reduce cognitive load.
Help students make information meaningful and aid
encoding through organization, imagery,
elaboration, and activity.
Model and encourage metacogniton.