Memory Lecture 9 Chapter 8 The Phenomenon of Memory •learning has persisted over time •our ability to store and retrieve information. 2 Studying Memory: Information Processing Models Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Sequential Process Monitor (Retrieval) 3 Information Processing 4 Sensory Memory • Snapshot • Very detailed • Lasts a second or less Sensory memory S X T J R S P K Y Low Tone Medium Tone High Tone “Recall” JRS (100% recall) 50 ms (1/20 second) 6 Short term/Working memory Ready? MUTGIKTLRSYP George Miller 7 Working Memory Duration 8 Long-Term Memory R.J. Erwin/ Photo Researchers The Clark’s nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches of buried pine seeds during winter and spring. 9 Types of Long-term Memory 10 How does the brain store memories? Synaptic Changes Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov. 25 1999. Courtesy of Dominique Muller Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) 12 Stress Hormones & Memory Scott Barbour/ Getty Images 13 H.M. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7584970 Hippocampus processes explicit memories. Weidenfield & Nicolson archives 15 Anterograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Memory Intact No New Memories Surgery 16 Implicit Memory HM can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). A B C 17 Cerebellum Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories. 18 Modifications to the Three-Stage Model 1. Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. 2. We select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory. 19 Encoding © Bananastock/ Alamy Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit 20 Automatic Processing 1. Space 2. Time 3. Frequency 21 Encoding • Primacy and recency effects Encoding strategies – Encoding meaning – Rehearsal – Chunking – Hierarchies Rehearsal 24 Chunking Example: PBSFOXCNNABCCBSMTVNBC Chunking • The prior example in chunks: PBS FOX CNN ABC CBS MTV NBC Hierarchy 27 Retrieval: Getting Information Out 28 Recognition 1. Name the capital of France. a. b. c. d. Brussels Rome London Paris 29 Recall 1. The capital of France is ______. 30 Retrieval Cues water smell fire smoke Fire Truck heat hose truck red 31 Priming 32 Context Effects Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers 33 Moods and Memories mood-congruent Jorgen Schytte/ Still Pictures 34 Forgetting • What makes us forget? 35 Encoding Failure 36 Storage Decay 37 Retrieval Failure Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. 38 Interference Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information. 39 Retroactive Interference 40 Memory Construction 41 Misinformation and Imagination Effects Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event. Depiction of the actual accident. 42 Misinformation Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? 43 Memory Construction A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit). Broken Glass? (%) 50 40 32 30 20 14 10 0 Group A (hit) Group B (Smashed into) Verb 44 Source Amnesia 45 Constructed Memories Loftus’ research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories. Don Shrubshell 46 Improving Memory • How can you apply this knowledge? 47 Supplements that claim to improve Memory • Bogus? Or not? • Don’t have to go through the FDA’s rigorous regulations if they are “natural” • They haven’t been found to affect LTP Supplements that claim to improve Memory • Gingko Biloba – dilates blood vessels, increasing blood to the brain – Helps some Alzheimer’s patients • A lot of the other supplements increase blood flow or increase metabolism – Some evidence that they can help in animals and the elderly • No evidence that it helps young healthy people – Guess you’ll just have to study hard • Worth more research What if they do make a smart drug that really works?