Sedimentary rock

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Transcript Sedimentary rock

Unit Test Review
Earth Science
2014
1. In which stage of the rock cycle shown would
you predict the formation of fossils?
• Stage N
2. Why are the edges of Rock sample 4
smooth?
• The rock
tumbled in a
river
3. What conclusion is supported by the
diagram?
• All rocks can
change into
other types of
rocks.
4. Which diagram shows how the
sample will settle?
• Sample C
5. What happens in location 3 of the
diagram?
• Heating and
pressure
6. Which of these is the best indication that
Massachusetts climate has changed over time?
• Glacial deposit
7. What does the evidence suggest?
• The 2 continents were once joined as
part of a larger continent
8. Which process explains the
formation of these volcanoes?
• subducting of one
plate under the
other causing
melting of the
lower plate
9. As the magnitude increases, the
distance that tremors will be felt…..
• INCREASES
10. What is supported by the fossil
record?
• Group D has been in
existence the longest
11. How could tropical plants have
grown in Antarctica?
• At one time, Antarctica was located
closer to the equator.
12. When did a major extinction event
most likely occur?
• At the end of
the PERMIAN
period
13. Which of the following rock layers
is most likely the youngest?
A) the layer containing
trilobites
B) the layer containing
fishes
C) the layer containing
amphibians
D) the layer containing
dinosaurs
14. Index fossils help scientists estimate the age
of a rock because index fossil species only
existed for a relatively short time. What
happened to the species that are now used as
index fossils?
A) They became extinct
B) They changed their diets
C) They hid in marine sediments
D) They migrated to new environments
15a. Which hypothesis is supported by
the fossil evidence?
A) The older reptile species went
extinct because sea levels rose
and flooded its habitat.
B) The older reptile species went
extinct because a predator was
introduced into the environment.
C) The older reptile species went
extinct because it could not
compete with the younger reptile
species.
D) The older reptile species went
extinct because a volcanic
eruption caused the environment
to change.
15b. What is superposition?
• The Law of Superposition states that
the bottom layer, in undisturbed
rock, is the OLDEST layer
16. How is relative age different from
actual age?
• Relative dating is used to determine the order
of events and the relative age of rocks by
examining the position of the rocks in a
sequence.
• Actual age or dating is a method to determine
the age in years of rock or other object.
17. Which is more likely to fossilize:
clam or jellyfish? Why?
• The hard shell of a clam is more likely
to fossilize because it is more
resistant to biological and
environmental destruction. For this
reason, teeth, bones and other hard
parts of organisms are much more
numerous in the fossil record than
soft tissues.
18. Why is a quick burial helpful in the
fossilization process?
• Rapid burial protects a dead
organism from destruction by
biological and environmental factors.
19. In what type of rock would you
most likely find fossils? Why?
• Sedimentary rock is made up of layers of
hardened sediments that accumulate over
time. The sediments protect the remains of
organisms from biological or environmental
destruction. Fossils are unlikely to survive the
heat and pressure involved in the formation of
igneous and metamorphic rocks.
20. Why is it difficult for an organism
living in the rainforest to become a
fossil?
• It is difficult for an organism living in a rain
forest to become fossilized. The large amount
of rain throughout the year causes rapid decay
of dead organisms. Also, many scavengers and
decomposers work quickly to break down the
tissues and structures of rain forest life.
21. What is the outermost layer of
earth?
• The CRUST
22. What evidence did Wegener find that supports
the hypothesis that the Earth’s continents were once
joined in a single land mass?
1. Climate evidence
2. Fossil Evidence
3. Rock Evidence
4. Fit of the continents
23. What is the plate tectonics theory?
• A scientific theory that describes the largescale motions of Earth's lithosphere.
24. The Earth’s continents are constantly moving
due to the motions of what?
• Tectonic plates
25. What are the 3 types of plate
boundaries?
• Convergent
• Divergent
• Transform
26. What is a subduction zone?
• The point where 2 crustal plates converge and
the less dense plate is forced upward and the
more dense plate slides under it. As the lower
plate slides into the subduction zone, it begins
to melt.
27. Where an oceanic plate collides with a
continental plate, why does the oceanic crust get
pulled under the continental crust?
• Because oceanic crust is MORE
dense than continental crust
28. Why do earthquakes occur at
subduction zones?
• This is not a smooth process, so it can increase
pressure and when that energy is released, it
can cause earthquakes
29. At transform boundaries, the plates can
become “stuck”. What happens when the plates
suddenly become “unstuck”?
• A large amount of energy is released
in the form of an earthquake.
30. What is a tsunami?
• Japanese word for: A water wave
triggered by an earthquake, volcanic
eruption, or landslide