Chapter 1 Nature of Science (No Quizzes)

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Transcript Chapter 1 Nature of Science (No Quizzes)

Earth Science
Chapter 1 – The
Nature of Science
Earth Science
OBJECTIVES
Differentiate among the four major
branches of Earth Science.
Contrast the four systems of Earth.
Discuss how Earth science effects your
daily life.
Chapter 1 – Major Areas
There are four major areas in Earth science.
Astronomy is the study of objects beyond the Earth’s
atmosphere.
M101 is a large MilkyWay-like galaxy in Ursa
Major, about 25 million
light-years (ly) distant.
Chapter 1 – Major Areas
(continued)
The study of the materials that make up Earth and the
processes that form and change these materials is
known as geology.
Chapter 1 – Major Areas
(continued)
The study of Earth’s Oceans is called oceanography.
The following
activities are usually
performed by
oceanographers:
 studying the
creatures that
inhabit salty water
 measuring physical
and chemical
properties of the
oceans
 examining the
effects of human
activities on Earth's
saltwater bodies
Chapter 1 – Major Areas
(continued)
Meteorology is the branch of Earth science that deals
with Earth’s atmosphere.
Chapter 1 Spheres
Earth can be divided
into four major
systems (or spheres).
The lithosphere
includes the rocks
that make up the
crust and rigid upper
mantle.
Chapter 1
Spheres –
continued
The atmosphere
is the
blanket of
gas that
surrounds
Earth.
Chapter 1 Spheres - continued
Earth’s hydrosphere is the system of all of the water
on the planet.
The water in Earth’s oceans, seas, lakes, rivers,
glaciers, and in Earth’s atmosphere makes up the
hydrosphere.
Chapter 1 Spheres - continued
The biosphere is Earth’s inhabitants
and their environments.
Earth’s four main
systems interact with
one another.
•You are part of the
biosphere.
•You live on the crust,
which is part of the
lithosphere.
•You breathe the gases
in the atmosphere.
• You depend in many
ways on the water in
the hydrosphere.
Chapter 1 The
Spheres – the
Summary
1.2 Methods of Scientists
OBJECTIVES
List the steps used in a scientific
method.
Compare and Contrast experimental
variables and controls.
Identify basic SI units.
Explain how to write numbers using
scientific notation.
Chapter 1 Section 2
The first step in a scientific method is to identify
the problem and determine what you want to know.
• defining the problem,
• stating a hypothesis
• analyzing the results of the test
• and drawing conclusions.
Comparing & Contrasting the independent variable and
the dependent variable.
Independent variable
Dependent variable
Both variables are involved in scientific experimentation.
An independent variable is a
factor that can be
manipulated.
The x-axis.
A dependent variable is a
factor that results from
manipulating the
independent variable, and
is measured by the
experimenter.
The y-axis
Control
To show that the results of the experiment are actually due to
the condition being tested, scientists use a control, which is
a standard for comparison.
Chapter 1 Section 2
In scientific notation, a number is expressed as a
value between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.
525,600 Minutes
0.001 M
5.256 x 105 Minutes
1.0 x 10-3 M
Chapter 1 Section 2
Most scientific studies use a standard
system of units called SI (Le Systeme
International d'Unites ), which is a modern
version of the metric system.
SI
Le Systeme International d'Unites
The SI unit of mass is
kilogram (kg).
Mass  gram
SI
Length  meter
Le Systeme International d'Unites
Temperature  Kelvin
SI
Time  second
Le Systeme International d'Unites
Liquid equivalent  liter
SI
Weight  Newton
Le Systeme International d'Unites
1.3 Communicating in
Science
OBJECTIVES
List several ways in which scientific
information is communicated.
Differentiate between a scientific theory
and a scientific law.
Chapter 1 Section 3
Scientific information is communicated
through:
•lab reports,
•professional papers.
either of which may include tables and
graphs, and models.
Chapter 1 Section 3
A basic fact that describes the behavior
of a natural phenomenon is called a
scientific law.
May be thought
of as a ‘rule
of nature’,
even though the
cause of the
law may not be
known.
Chapter 1 Section 3
Scientific theory
is based on an
explanation which
is based on many
observations during
repeated
experiments.
Chapter 1 Section 3
A scientific theory is valid only
if:
• it is consistent with observations,
• makes predictions that can be tested,
and
• is the simplest explanation of
observations.
Chapter 1 Section 3
A theory can be
changed or
modified if it is
found to be
incorrect.