The Elements

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Transcript The Elements

The Elements
Hydrogen
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Chemical Symbol: H
Molecular formula: H2
Common phase: Gas
Discovered in 1766, it is the
lightest element, almost never
found uncombined on Earth.
The sun and stars are almost
pure hydrogen.
Thermonuclear fusion of
hydrogen creates light and
heat.
Helium (helios or sun)
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Symbol: He
Chemical formula: He
Discovered in 1868.
Common phase: gas
It is a noble gas and does not
combine with other elements.
Most helium is found in natural gas
wells in the United States.
Used in blimps and balloons.
Although it will change the sound
of one’s voice, it is a simple
asphyxiant and should be used
with caution.
Lithium (lithos or stone)
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Symbol: Li
Discovered in 1817.
Common phase: solid
Lightest of the solid elements.
Easily oxidized.
Used in ceramics, alloys, the
H-bomb, gout and manic
depressives.
Beryllium
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Symbol: Be
Discovered in 1798.
Common phase: solid metal
Found in the mineral beryl.
Used to make elastic alloys
for gears, springs, and rocket
nose cones because of its
high melting point of 1285
degrees Celsius.
Boron
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Symbol: B
Discovered in 1808.
A nonmetal best known in
borax (soap) and boric acid
which is the only acid safe for
eyes.
Also used as plant food and
weed killer.
Carbon
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Symbol: C
Prehistoric origin.
Common phase: solid
Four types are:
Diamond, graphite, charcoal
and bucky balls.
Used to produce nylons,
plastics, petrol, perfume and
explosives.
Carbon nanotubes
Nitrogen
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Symbol: N
Common phase: gas
Discovered in 1772.
Makes up 78% of the
atmosphere.
Used to make anesthetics
(nitrous oxide), explosives,
and amino acids (proteins).
Nitrogen Cycle
Oxygen
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Symbol: O
Molecular formula: O2
Common phase: gas
Discovered in the 1700’s.
Most abundant element on
Earth.
21% of atmosphere and 2/3 of
the human body are
composed of oxygen.
Oxygen molecules
Fluorine (To Flow)
Fluorine Molecule
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Symbol: F
Molecular formula: F2
Common phase: gas
Discovered in 1771.
THE most reactive nonmetal.
Will react with almost
everything except the
toughest noble gases.
It is the T-rex of the nonmetals.
Neon
Neon Swirl
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Symbol: Ne
Noble gas
Discovered in 1898.
Mostly used in advertising.
Produces an orange-red
light when zapped with
electricity.
Sodium
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Symbol: Na for Natrium
Common form: metal
Discovered in 1807.
6th most abundant element.
Reacts with water.
Combines with chlorine to
make table salt.
Also used in baking soda, lye
and borax.
Magnesium
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Symbol: Mg
Common state: solid
metal
Discovered in 1775.
8th most abundant element
Used for firecrackers,
bombs, flash bulbs, flares.
Aluminum
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Symbol: Al
Common form: solid metal
Most abundant metal on
Earth.
Used extensively because
of its density.
It is a non-renewable
resource.
Silicon
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Symbol: Si
Semi-metal
Discovered in 1823
2nd most abundant
“metal”.
Used for computer chips,
caulking, etc.
Phosphorous (light bearer)
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Symbol: P
Nonmetal
Discovered in 1669.
Occurs in 3 major forms: white,
red and rarely, black.
It turns to yellow, then to red in
the light and glows in the dark,
hence the term,
“phosphorescent”.
White Phosphorous
Copper
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Symbol: Cu from the Latin
word Cuprum.
Metal.
Discovered: ancient times.
It and gold are the only
non-silver metals.
Used in most gold jewelry
Copper Dude
“Cu” later alligator!
Zinc
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Symbol: Zn
Metal
Discovered in 16th century.
An excellent coating metal
also used to line flashlight
batteries.
Zinc Cream
Gallium
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Symbol: Ga
Metal
Discovered in 1875.
From the word Gallia—the old
name for France.
Melts in the hand and expands
while it freezes.
Used to record temperatures
because of its high boiling
point of 1983 degrees C.
Germanium (named for Germany)
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Symbol: Ge
Semi-metal
Discovered in 1886.
First element used for
transistors.
Ge has replaced large vacuum
tubes with devices 1/400 of an
inch across.
Crystal Structure of
Solid Germanium
Arsenic
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Symbol: As
Discovered in 1250.
Semi-metal
Best known as a poison but
also used in medicinal
compounds.
When heated, it sublimes.
Yikes!
Selenium (moon)
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Symbol: Se
Discovered in 1817
Both a metal and nonmetal.
Is electrically conducive with
variations in light.
The photoelectric trait suits it
for service in electric eyes,
solar cells, tv cameras and
light meters.
Bromine (stench)
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Symbol: Br
Discovered in 1826.
A red caustic, fuming liquid
with a foul smell.
Used as a disinfectant,
nerve sedatives and
gasoline anti-knock
compounds.
Krypton (kryptos or hidden)
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Symbol: Kr
Discovered in 1898.
Noble gas
Radioactive isotopes of
krypton are used to detect
excess traces of nuclear
production because it is a
product of nuclear reactors.
Rubidium (red)
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Symbol: Rb
Discovered in 1861.
Metal
Used in electric-eye cells.
Slightly radioactive and used to
locate brain tumors because it
collects only in tumors, not
normal tissue.
Barium (heavy/dense)
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Symbol: Ba
Discovered in 1808.
Metal
Used as a medical cocktail
to outline the stomach and
intestines for X-ray exams.
Also gives green color to
fireworks.
Zirconium
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Symbol: Zr
Prehistoric
Metal
Used to line reactors in
nuclear subs and nuclear
power plants because it is
unaffected by neutrons.
Also used in rockets.
Silver (argentum)
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Symbol: Ag
Prehistoric
Best conductor of heat and
electricity.
Its salts are basic to
photography.
Silver bromide undergoes a
chemical change when exposed
Hi Ho___and Away!
to light.
Sulfur (brimstone)
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Symbol: S
Ancient times
Non-metal
Used in all branches of
industry such as matches,
insecticides and rubber tires.
Used to make sulfuric acid—
the most widely used acid in
the world.
A lovely lump of sulfur
Chlorine
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Symbol: Cl
Discovered in 1774.
Gas
Greenish-yellow gas used
as a bleach, disinfectant,
and poisonous gas.
Commonly obtained from
pure salt.
Argon
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Symbol: Ar
Noble Gas
Discovered 1894
The most abundant of the
noble gases, making up
0.934% of the Earth’s
atmosphere.
Used for colored lighting.
Potassium (kalium)
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Symbol: K
Soft Metal
Discovered in 1807.
7th most abundant
element in Earth’s crust.
Slightly radioactive.
Reacts with water.
Potassium and water
Calcium (lime)
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Symbol: Ca
Metal
Discovered in 1808.
5th Most abundant element in the
Earth’s crust.
Essential for healthy bones and
teeth and regulating heartbeat.
Average human has about 2 pounds
of calcium.
Scandium
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Symbol: Sc
Metal
Discovered in 1879
isotope tracing in crude oil
analysis
the iodide is added to mercury
vapor lamps and produces a
highly efficient light source
resembling sunlight, which is
important for indoor or nighttime color TV transmission.
Titanium
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Symbol: Ti
Metal
Discovered in 1791
9th most abundant element in
Earth’s crust.
Used to make bright paints and
supersonic aircraft such as the
Concorde.
Concorde
Vanadium
Vanadium foil sheet
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Symbol: V
Metal
Discovered in 1830.
Added to steel, it produces
one of the toughest alloys
for armour plate, axles,
piston rods and
crankshafts.
Chromium
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Symbol: Cr
Metal
Discovered in 1797
Bright, silvery metal used to
form pigments that are vivid in
color.
Rubies get their color from
chromium.
Used to plate bumpers, etc.
Manganese
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Symbol: Mn
Metal
Discovered in 1774.
Gives steel a hard yet
pliant quality.
Gives animal bone its
sponginess so that it
doesn’t break so easily.
Manganese nuggets
Iron (Ferrum)
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Symbol: Fe
Metal
Prehistoric
4th most abundant element
and least expensive metal.
The basic ingredients in
steel.
Carries oxygen to blood.
Cobalt (evil spirit)
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Symbol: Co
Metal
Discovered in 1735.
Blue salts give color to
porcelains and enamels.
Used to make jet propulsion
engines.
Radioactive isotopes used to
treat cancer.
Nickel (false copper)
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Symbol: Ni
Metal
Discovered in 1751.
A reddish ore that is hard,
durable and used for making
coins.
A U.S. 25 cent piece is 25%
nickel and the rest is copper.
Tin (Stannum)
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Symbol: Sn
Metal
Prehistoric
Durable metal that resists
corrosion, making the tin can
possible.
A tin can is steel coated with
about 0.0005 of an inch of tin.
Antimony (stibium)
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Symbol: Sb
Metal
Discovered in 1450.
Generally mixes with
other elements.
Mixed with lead
batteries and goes into
pewter alloys.
Tellurium (the earth)
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Symbol: Te
Semi-Metal
Discovered in 1782.
Tellurium is often used as an additive to
steel and it is often alloyed to aluminum,
copper, tin or lead.
Tellurium is added to lead to improve its
durability, strength and resistance to
corrosion. It can be used for cast iron,
ceramics, blasting caps, solar panels,
chalcogenide glasses. When added to
rubber, tellurium speeds up the curing
process and makes the product less
susceptible to ageing and less likely to be
affected by oil, which softens normal
rubber.
Iodine (violet)
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Symbol: I
Molecule: I2
Solid
Discovered in 1811.
A blue-black solid that turns
into a violet vapor when heated.
Used in medicine, photography
and is added to salt to prevent
goiter.
Xenon (stranger)
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Symbol: Xe
Noble gas
Discovered in 1898.
Rarest gas in atmosphere.
Used in high-speed electronic
flash bulbs by photographers.
Produces an instant, intense,
light.
Cesium (sky blue)
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Symbol: Cs
Metal
Discovered in 1869.
Its salt turns flames blue.
Softest metal that’s a liquid at
room temperature.
Reacts violently with water.
Radioactive isotopes used in
medicine.
Cesium + Water
Gold (Aurum)
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Symbol: Au
Metal
Prehistoric
The most malleable metal.
Used for money, jewelry,
dental work and
electronics.
Mercury (Hydragyrum)
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Symbol: Hg
Liquid metal
Prehistoric
Used in thermometers,
barometers, dental inlays,
thermostats and vaporized
mercury give street lights their
bluish-hue.
Mercury vapors are poisonous.
Lead (Plumbum)
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Symbol: Pb
Metal
Prehistoric
Lead is extremely durable,
used as the backbone of
plumbing for centuries.
Lead pipes once drained the
baths of ancient Rome and
have still been recovered intact.
Lead poisoning causes health
problems.
Mad Hatter
Bismuth (white mass)
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Symbol: Bi
Semi-metal
Discovered in 1450.
Melts at 271 degrees C but
forms alloys that melt at 47
deg. C.
Used in electric fuses, solders
and automatic fire sprinklers.
Polonium (Poland)
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Symbol: Po
Metal
Discovered in 1898 by
Marie and Pierre Curie.
The scarcest natural
element, its use is as an
alpha particle source in
scientific research.
Astatine
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Symbol: At
Metallic
Discovered in 1940.
An unstable element that is
not found naturally but is a
by-product of nuclear
reactors.
Radon
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Symbol: Rn
Noble gas
Discovered in 1900.
Heaviest gaseous element.
A radioactive gas emitted
from radium.
Can cause cancer and also
used in cancer therapy.
Radon is a by-product
from the radon used to
illuminate the clock face.
Francium (France)
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Symbol: Fr
Discovered in 1939 by and
assistant to Marie Curie.
Short-lived product from the
decay of actinium.
This sample of uraninite
contains some francium
Never been seen due to its
because of a steady-state decay chain.
short-life.
Radium
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Symbol: Ra
Metal
Discovered 1898 by the Curies.
6th rarest element.
Radium bromide and zinc sulfide
make luminous watch dials.
The radioactive particles from
the radium cause the zinc sulfide
to glow.
Tungsten (wolfram)
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Symbol: W
Discovered in 1783.
Highest melting point of
the metals.
Melts at 3,410 deg. C.
Used in incandescent
light bulbs.
Uranium (Uranus)
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Symbol: U
Discovered 1789.
Metal
Heaviest atoms of naturally
occurring elements.
Most common form has a halflife of 4500 million years.
Used in nuclear reactors and
weapons of mass destruction.