P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision

download report

Transcript P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision

20 Sheets
20 Questions
20 Answers
You have 5 minutes to learn them all
P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision
How much
can you recall
from your first
GCSE
module?
Anything about dinosaurs?
P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision
What is the furthest distance humans
have travelled into space?
P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision
What geological features does this model show?
P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision
Is this
star birth or
star death?
P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision
What is this process called?
Earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions can
be common here
Igneous Rock
Oceanic Crust
Mantle
Convection
Currents
Magma
P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision
Different craters:
On the moon?
Barringer?
Chicxulub?
P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision
Two theories for: ‘What
killed the dinosaurs?
P1: The Earth and the Universe: Revision
Aims:
• Recall the range of content
in P1
• Begin revising P1
• Answer 20 questions
• Identify weakest areas
• Plan revision (beginning
with weakest areas)
Twenty Questions
Short or one word answers on paper.
30 seconds for short answers / 60 seconds for longer ones.
How will you score?
20 / 20 = A*
10/20 = C
17/20 = A
14/20 = B
7/ 20 = D
Test advice: If in doubt… GUESS!!!
Predict Your Score
Now!
What mark & grade do you think you will get?
20 / 20 = A*
10/20 = C
17/20 = A
14/20 = B
7/ 20 = D
1. Who first suggested the earth was a lot older just by
looking at rocks?
2. Who proposed the theory of Continental Drift?
3. Missing word in this sequence?
Core ___________ Crust
4. What’s the difference between an observation and an
explanation?
5. What’s a subduction zone?
6. Where do you find a tectonic plate?
7. How did Barringer know an asteroid created his crater?
8. What is light pollution?
9. What process releases energy from the Sun?
10. Name two different theories which explain why dinosaurs
became extinct.
11. Name an area that could be called a constructive margin.
12. What was James Hutton’s theory called?
13. What two words describe the checking of scientific
documents by other scientists before publication?
14. Name two methods for measuring the distances to stars
and galaxies.
15. Astronomers observe light from dying stars which shows
they contain all 92 elements. True or false?
16. We know what distant stars and galaxies are made from
because manned space flights collect samples which
are then returned to earth for testing. (True or False?)
17. Place these in order from smallest to largest:
Universe
solar system
planet
galaxy
18. What is the sun made from?
19. Describe one way that rocks provide evidence of
changes in the Earth.
20. Bullet-point the stages of seafloor spreading.
1. Who first suggested the earth was a lot older just by
looking at rocks? James Hutton
2. Who proposed the theory of Continental Drift?
Alfred Wegener
3. Missing word in this sequence?
mantle
core ___________
crust
4. What’s the difference between an observation and an
explanation?
observation – something seen and measurable;
explanation – to make something clear or easy to
understand by describing or giving information about it
5. What’s a subduction zone?
ocean floor is destroyed at the edge where the
oceanic plate slips beneath the continental one
Whizz thru Quiz Answers (1 to 5)
Let’s look through some answers in more detail.
Note down stuff you’re clueless about.
When you start revising – start with those first.
In the examination – if you’re still clueless….
GUESS!!
One lucky mark could make a difference
2. Who proposed the theory of Continental Drift?
Look at the coastlines of South
America and Africa. I wonder of they
used to fit together…
Alfred
Wegener
I’m going to call this my
Theory of Continental Drift
Continental drift
What’s my evidence for this? Three things:
1) The “jigsaw fit”
2) Each continent has similar rocks and fossils
3) Each continent has similar animal species
Further evidence of tectonic plate movement
The formation of mountain ranges can be explained by tectonic
theory. Consider the Himalayas at the top of India:
This is where
India is now
This is where
India was millions
of years ago
3. Missing word in this sequence? core mantle crust
A thin crust - 10100km thick and
not very dense
A mantle – extends
almost halfway to the
centre, hot and dense
A core – made of molten
nickel and iron. Outer
part is liquid and inner
part is solid. Gets hot
due to radioactive decay.
The Earth is believed to be 4500 million years old
5. What’s a subduction zone?
A subduction zone – is a destructive margin
Subduction
Thin, dense oceanic plate
Convection
Currents
Thick, less dense
continental plate
6. What is tectonic plate and where do you find one (of 12)?
a giant slab of rock comprising of crust and upper
mantle which makes up the Earth’s outer layer
7. How did Barringer know an asteroid created his crater?
Evidence: many fragments of iron / quartz dust
particles / layers of rock in reverse order
8. What is light pollution?
Think streetlights: light that goes up and destroys a
clear view of the night sky (where are telescopes?)
9. What process releases energy from the Sun?
nuclear fusion; the Sun fuses hydrogen to make helium
10. Name two different theories which explain why dinosaurs
became extinct, why there was a mass extinction.
2.
1. Impact / collision theory
Flood basalt event / Super Volcano
7. How did Barringer know an asteroid created his crater?
The Earth has craters such as Barringer Crater. It also has
volcanoes
……………………
.
• A hundred years ago, scientists argued about what made
the crater.
iron
Bits of rock around the crater had a lot of ……………
in
them. Meteorites have a lot of iron in them.
• A volcano can’t produce as much pressure as an impact.
Some rock of the crater has been changed by very high
pressure
……………………
.
evidence
• This provides ……………………
that supports the impact
explanation of craters.
volcanoes iron
cheese
Venus
evidence
pressure
9. What process releases energy from the Sun?
In a star the forces of
gravitational attraction
pulling the particles inwards
balanced by forces
are _________
acting outwards due to the
temperatures inside the
huge __________
star.
Stars are basically ________
nuclear reactors that use _______
hydrogen
as a fuel. During its main sequence a star will release
energy by combining hydrogen and helium nuclei (light
heavier
elements) into _________
elements.
Words – heavier, balanced, hydrogen, nuclear, temperatures
Our sun: an example of a main sequence star midway
through a 10 billion year life span. It will die eventually!
10. Name two different theories which explain why
dinosaurs became extinct.
Asteroid collision
Aka Impact THEORY
Asteroid collision
• good geophysical evidence for
occurrence of an asteroid
impact at the end of the
Cretaceous period. ( Data )
• A band of clay rich in the
mineral iridium was deposited
at the end of the Cretaceous and
has been found at many places
in the world. This mineral is
rare on Earth but more common
in meteorites.
• An impact would have triggered
a nuclear winter scenario
causing the death of the
dinosaurs as well as the
pterosaurs, several families of
birds and mammals and also
marine animals such as the
plesiosaurs and ammonites.
( Explanation )
Flood Basalt Events
A.k.a
Super-Volcanoes
Flood basalt events
• At the end of the
Cretaceous there were lots
of volcanic eruptions in
some parts of the world. (
Evidence )
• Volcanic eruptions release
poisonous gases.
• Could explain why
extinctions began earlier
than 65 million years ago.
• The Deccan Traps, huge
flood basalts, were
deposited at this time,
(Data) and the dust and
gases which erupted at the
same time would probably
have caused environmental
changes over a wide area.
IS THE TRUTH OUT THERE ?
• Both impact theory and super-volcanoes are plausible and can
explain animal extinction, neither explains why some animals
died whilst others survived.
• Why did the dinosaurs, which were so successful, die out, while
other animals such as frogs, which we know are environmentally
sensitive, survive?
• Although it is usually assumed that the dinosaurs all went extinct
all at the same time all over the world, the truth of the matter is
that we only have good evidence from North America. In other
parts of the world there are either no records or exact dates are
unclear.
• As China and other countries outside of Europe and the US are
studied more intensively we will be able to gather more data to
build up a clearer picture of what was going on in the world at
the end of the Cretaceous period.
How are you doing so far?
Anyone got 10 out of 10 ?
Keep noting down the bits you really don’t know..
Exam Advice
DRINK WATER
(A hydrated brain improves your ability to guess).
11. Name an area that could be called a constructive margin.
Where the ocean floor grows larger at an oceanic ridge
by seafloor spreading
12. What was James Hutton’s theory called?
Deep Time
13. What two words describe the checking of scientific
documents by other scientists before publication?
Peer Review
New scientific data / explanations are critically reviewed
and evaluated by other scientists.
Scientists communicate by publishing
14. Name two methods for measuring the distances to stars
and galaxies. Parallax and Brightness
15. Astronomers observe light from dying stars which shows
they contain all 92 elements. True or false?
True. Each element produces a unique patterned spectra
14. Name two methods for measuring the distances to stars.
1) Relative Brightness
The further away a
star is the dimmer it
is. Simple.
2) The Parallax
Distant
stars
Nearby star
15. Astronomers observe light from dying stars
which shows they contain all 92 elements.
(This is true)
Source of
light
“Spectra”
If you pass the light through a gas something
different is seen…
helium
Some wavelengths of light
are absorbed by the gas –
an “absorption spectrum”.
If the light source is moving away the absorption
spectra look a little different…
Before
helium
helium
After
The absorption lines have all been “shifted”
towards the longer wavelength end (red end)…
Before
This is called red
shift. The faster
the light source
moves the further
its light will be
“shifted”
After
Higher students: You don’t need to
learn Red Shift, but you must learn
Hubble’s Law relating the distance
of galaxies and the speed they are
moving away!!!
A True & Very Sad Story
Final results will say how many marks you got.
Last year a student got 41 out of 50. (B grade).
Great! … but sadly for him..
...his best mate got 42 out of 50…
...which was an A grade.
If in doubt:
GUESS!!
16. We know what distant stars and galaxies are made from
because manned space flights collect samples which
are then returned to earth for testing. (True or False?)
False. The only manned flights have been to the moon
17. Place these in order from smallest to largest:
Universe
solar system
planet
galaxy
planet solar system galaxy Universe
18. What is the sun made from? hydrogen and helium
19. Describe one way that rocks provide evidence of
changes in the Earth.
1. Layering. 2. Fossils. 3. Erosion 4. Craters. 5. Folding
20. Bullet-point the stages of seafloor spreading.
1. Material from Earths mantle rises 2 Some melts to
form magma 3 Magma erupts 4. Convection
currents in mantle move like conveyor belts.
19. Describe the ways that rocks provide evidence for
the age of the Earth
Scientists once thought that the Earth was only 6000 years
old. Rocks have provided lots of evidence for the world being
older.
1) Erosion
2) Craters
3) Mountains
4) Fossils
5) Folding
6) Radioactive dating
20. Bullet-point the stages of seafloor spreading.
Sea Floor Spreading – A constructive margin
Earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions can
be common here
Igneous Rock
Oceanic Crust
Mantle
Convection
Currents
Magma
What did you score?
20 / 20 = A*
10/20 = C
17/20 = A
14/20 = B
7/ 20 = D
Task:
You have 2 minutes to identify and list your 3
weakest areas from the next page in your planner.
Time and Space
Deep Time
Continental Drift
Seafloor Spreading
Plate Tectonics
Earthquakes
Volcanoes / Geohazards
Craters
What killed the dinosaurs?
Nuclear fusion
Star birth / star death
Measuring stars
Telescopes / Hubble
The age of the Universe
Peer Review
Observation / explanation
timeline of the Earth & Universe
James Hutton / rock cycle (H) & dating
Alfred Wegener/ evidence for & against
oceanic ridge/ magnetism /convection
margins / subduction / mountains
faults / sequence / prediction
disasters & damage limitation
asteroid impacts / Barringer etc.
impact theory / super-volcanoes
fusion of nuclei (H) / space elements
sequences of both
Parallax & brightness / light pollution
Shapley v Curtis (H) / Edwin Hubble
Big Bang / Universe models
communication / publication
obs.> imagination > exp.> evidence
Lesson: Your P1 Revision: 3 Choices
Choice 1: Make up 5 questions (with answers) for each
weak area. 15 questions in all. Test each other.
Choice 2: Draw a memory diagram of your weakest area.
(I’ll show you an example of how to do this).
Choice 3: Plan a P1 revision lesson to teach your partner
(and yourself) about one of your weak areas. It must
include an introduction, some annotated diagrams and
some questions to ask the ‘class.’
Pair up with another student. Work as a team.
Support each other. Help each other out.
Higher Students – Your A* awaits…
Mountain building in relation to the rock cycle
Tectonic plates in relation to earthquakes / volcanoes
Fusion of hydrogen nuclei providing the Sun’s energy
Light travels at a high but infinite speed of 300 000 km/s
Seafloor spreading – about 10cm per year
Seafloor spreading relating to magnetic reversals in solid magma
Distance of galaxies / speed they are moving away (Hubble’s Law)
Why motions of galaxies mean Space itself is expanding
How Solar System was formed about five thousand million years ago
The Earth’s rocks are four thousand million years old
Write these down in your planner
Revision Homework
• Create a Powerpoint presentation on your weakest areas
• Use the 15 questions you worked out as your starting
point.
• Explain ‘difficult’ science parts as simply as you can.
• Use relevant diagrams & photographs from the internet.
• Next week : ‘trade’ your Powerpoint with other students.
P1: Overview
data / observation> imagination > explanation > evidence
The Case Studies in P1 all follow this pattern.
OCR wants to know you understand these fundamentals.
Data – Identify statements that are data / observation
Imagination – How it leads to explanation
(eg: Hutton, Wegener, Barringer, Hubble)
Explanation – Statements that explain.
Evidence – supports or disagrees with explanation.
Remember
P1 is only ONE part of your examination.
C1 and B1 are equally full modules.
This revision lesson did not cover everything!
Star Birth and Death? Geohazards? Deep Time?
Time and Space?........
Start revising NOW!!!