Unit 1 - TeacherWeb

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Transcript Unit 1 - TeacherWeb

Earth’s Surface:
Unit 1
The Big Idea:
Continuous processes on
Earth’s surface result in
the formation and
destruction of landforms
and the formation of soil.
Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres
What on Earth?
• Earth systems- all of the matter,
energy, and processes within Earth’s
Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres
• Geosphere- mostly solid,
rock part of Earth. It
extends from the center
to the surface of Earth.
– Layers of Geosphere
a. Crust
b. Mantle
c. Core
Layers of the Geosphere
• Crust - 5-10 km (ocean) 35-70 km (continental),
made of silicates, LEAST DENSE
• Mantle-about 2900 km thick, very slow flowing,
solid rock, made of silicate minerals that are denser
than the crust.
• Core- Outer : liquid layer
3500 km
Inner: solid, dense core
made of Fe & Ni
Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres
Got Water?
• Hydrosphere- liquid water including
oceans, lakes, rivers, marshes, streams,
swamps, ground water, rain & water
droplets in clouds.
– 97% of all water on Earth is the saltwater
found in oceans.
– Oceans cover 71% of Earth.
Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres
Ice, Ice Baby
• Cryosphere- made up
of all the frozen water
on Earth. All the ice,
sea ice, glaciers, ice
shelves, icebergs, &
Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres
What a Gas!
• Atmosphere- made of invisible gases that
surround Earth.
The atmosphere is about
• 78% Nitrogen
• 21% Oxygen
• 1% many other gases
(Ar, CO2, & water vapor).
Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres
Living Together
• Biosphere- made up of living things
and the areas of Earth where they
are found.
Unit 1 Lesson 1 Earth’s Spheres
What’s the Matter?
Energy Budget- formed with movement of
energy through Earth’s system.
• All of the five spheres of
Earth interact as matter &
energy change & cycle
through the system. (Think
of the water, nitrogen &
carbon cycles)
• Trace the flow of energy through Earth’s system.
Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering
Break It Down
• Weathering- breakdown of rock material
by physical and chemical processes.
Types of Weathering
1. Physical
2. Chemical
Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering
Physical weathering
• process by which rock is broken down into
smaller pieces by physical changes, but does
NOT change composition.
Ice wedging (frost wedging)- crack growth
Animals-mix soil, air & drainage
Plants-reason crack growth
Wind-moves sediment
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Lesson 2 Weathering
Physical Weathering
• Abrasion -breaking
down & wearing away of
rock material by the
mechanical action of
other rocks.
Chemical Weathering
Unit 1 Lesson 2 Weathering
• breakdown of rocks by chemical reactions
which changes composition & appearance.
• Oxidation-chemicals in rock combine with oxygen in the air or
in water, sometimes indicated by color change.
• Acid precipitation -occurs when strong acids fall to Earth as
rain, sleet, or snow.
Unit 1 Lesson 3 Erosion & Deposition
Go with the Flow
• Erosion process by which
sediment & other materials
are moved from one place
to another.
• Deposition process by
which eroded material is
Floodplain –flat area; fertile
Meander –curves & bends
Oxbow –a meander that is cut off
Delta- fan shaped pattern of deposited
Shoreline- place where land & water meet
Groundwater-water below Earth’s surface
Unit 1 Lesson 4 BY Wind, Ice, & Gravity
Alluvial fan - fan shaped
deposit that forms on dry
Creep -extremely slow
movement of material
Mudflow -rapid movement
of a large mass of mud
due to lots of rain
Unit 1 Lesson 4 BY Wind, Ice, & Gravity
Shaping the Earth
• Glacial drift -general term
for all materials carried &
deposited by a glacier.
– Alpine glaciers- cause U
shaped valleys & rugged
– Continental glaciers - form
flat landscapes
Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation
• Soil - loose mixture of
rock fragments, organic
matter, water, and air
that can support the
growth of vegetation.
• Soil profile - vertical
section of soil that
shows all the different
• Soil horizon - Each layer
in the soil profile that
has different physical
Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation
Soil Horizons
• A horizon - topmost layer of soil,
often referred to as topsoil. It
contains the most humus.
• B horizon -has less humus. Water
carries material from the A to
the B horizon, in a process called
leaching. “Zone of accumulation”
• C horizon -lies below the B
horizon known as the parent
material. It contains the largest
rock fragments and usually no
organic matter.
Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation
What it takes for soil to form:
1. Parent rock - determines soil type
2. Climate-faster in warm, wet rather cold &
3. Topography- (slope of the land) faster on
4. Plants and animals- add organic material
by breaking down remains
5. Time- longer it has, the better the soil
Unit 1 Lesson 5 Soil Formation
Soil properties are used to classify
different soils
– Soil texture
– Color
– Pore space
– Fertility
– Chemistry
pH scale -measure of how acidic or basic a substance is.
Acids and bases are on opposite ends of a measuring tool,
the pH scale. At the center of the scale is the neutral
zone. This scale receives extensive use in testing soil for
farmers, gardeners and environmentalists.