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Section Outline
Section 18-1
18–1
Finding Order in Diversity
A. Why Classify?
B. Assigning Scientific Names
1. Early Efforts at Naming Organisms
2. Binomial Nomenclature
C. Linnaeus’s System of Classification
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Section:
Flowchart
Section 18-1
Linnaeus’s System of Classification
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
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Section:
Figure 18-5 Classification of Ursus arctos
Section 18-1
Grizzly bear Black bear
Giant
panda
Red fox
Coral Sea star
Abert
squirrel snake
KINGDOM Animalia
PHYLUM Chordata
CLASS Mammalia
ORDER Carnivora
FAMILY Ursidae
GENUS Ursus
SPECIES Ursus arctos
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Section:
Interest Grabber
Section 18-2
One Big Family?
How can you determine if one organism is closely related to another? It
may seem easy, but it isn’t, and looks are often deceiving. For example,
roses and orchids are both flowering plants, but roses grow on bushes or
vines and have thorns. Many orchids don’t even grow in soil—they can
grow in trees! Rose and orchid blossoms look very different, and roses and
orchids cannot produce hybrids, or offspring of crosses between parents
with different traits.
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Section:
Interest Grabber continued
Section 18-2
1. Do you think roses and orchids are closely related? Explain your
answer.
2. Now, apply the same logic to dogs. Different breeds of dogs—such as a
Labrador retriever and a collie—can breed and produce offspring. So
what is the difference between the rose-orchid combination and the
Lab-collie combination?
3. What defines a species? Is appearance important? What other factors
might be considered?
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Section:
Section Outline
Section 18-2
18–2
Modern Evolutionary Classification
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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Section:
Problems With Traditional Classification
Evolutionary Classification
Classification Using Cladograms
Similarities in DNA and RNA
Molecular Clocks
Traditional Classification Versus Cladogram
Section 18-2
Appendages
Crab
Conical Shells
Barnacle
Limpet
Crustaceans
Crab
Gastropod
Barnacle
Limpet
Molted
exoskeleton
Segmentation
Tiny free-swimming larva
TRADITIONAL
CLASSIFICATION
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Section:
CLADOGRAM
Traditional Classification Versus Cladogram
Section 18-2
Appendages
Crab
Conical Shells
Barnacle
Limpet
Crustaceans
Crab
Gastropod
Barnacle
Limpet
Molted
exoskeleton
Segmentation
Tiny free-swimming larva
TRADITIONAL
CLASSIFICATION
Go to
Section:
CLADOGRAM
Section Outline
Section 18-3
18–3
Kingdoms and Domains
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
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Section:
The Tree of Life Evolves
The Three-Domain System
Domain Bacteria
Domain Archaea
Domain Eukarya
1. Protista
2. Fungi
3. Plantae
4. Animalia
Concept Map
Section 18-3
Living
Things
are characterized by
Eukaryotic
cells
and differing
Important
characteristics
which place them in
Cell wall
structures
such as
Domain
Eukarya
Prokaryotic cells
which is subdivided into
which place them in
Domain
Bacteria
Domain
Archaea
which coincides with
which coincides with
Kingdom
Eubacteria
Kingdom
Archaebacteria
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Section:
Kingdom
Plantae
Kingdom
Fungi
Kingdom
Protista
Kingdom
Animalia
Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of
Kingdoms and Domains
Section 18-3
Classification of Living Things
DOMAIN
Bacteria
Archaea
KINGDOM
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
CELL TYPE
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Prokaryote
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
Eukaryote
Eukaryote
Eukaryote
Cell walls with
peptidoglycan
Cell walls
without
peptidoglycan
Cell walls of
cellulose in
some; some
have
chloroplasts
Cell walls of
chitin
Cell walls of
cellulose;
chloroplasts
No cell walls
or chloroplasts
Unicellular
Unicellular
Most unicellular;
some colonial;
some
multicellular
Most
multicellular;
some
unicellular
Multicellular
Multicellular
MODE OF
NUTRITION
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Autotroph or
heterotroph
Heterotroph
Autotroph
Heterotroph
EXAMPLES
Streptococcus,
Escherichia coli
Methanogens,
halophiles
Amoeba,
Paramecium,
slime molds,
giant kelp
Mushrooms,
yeasts
Mosses, ferns,
flowering
plants
Sponges,
worms,
insects, fishes,
mammals
CELL
STRUCTURES
NUMBER OF
CELLS
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Section:
Eukarya
Figure 18-13 Cladogram of Six
Kingdoms and Three Domains
Section 18-3
DOMAIN
ARCHAEA
DOMAIN
EUKARYA
Kingdoms
DOMAIN
BACTERIA
Go to
Section:
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
Protista
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia