Transcript Understanding SNPs and Cancer
Understanding Cancer and Related Topics Understanding Cancer Developed by: Lewis J. Kleinsmith, Ph.D. Donna Kerrigan, M.S. Jeanne Kelly Brian Hollen Discusses and illustrates what cancer is, explains the link between genes and cancer, and discusses what is known about the causes, detection, and diagnosis of the disease. These PowerPoint slides are not locked files. You can mix and match slides from different tutorials as you prepare your own lectures. In the Notes section, you will find explanations of the graphics. The art in this tutorial is copyrighted and may not be reused for commercial gain. Please do not remove the NCI logo or the copyright mark from any slide. These tutorials may be copied only if they are distributed free of charge for educational purposes. What Causes Cancer? Some viruses or bacteria Some chemicals Radiation Heredity Diet Hormones Population-Based Studies Regions of Highest Incidence U.K.: Lung cancer JAPAN: Stomach cancer CHINA: Liver cancer AUSTRALIA: Skin cancer CANADA: Leukemia U.S.: Colon cancer BRAZIL: Cervical cancer Heredity? Behaviors? Other Factors? Colon Cancer Stomach Cancer (Number of new cases per 100,000 people) (Number of new cases per 100,000 people) 100 100 70 50 5 0 7 0 Japan Japanese families in U.S. U.S. Japan Japanese families in U.S. U.S. Tobacco Use and Cancer Some Cancer-Causing Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke What about smokeless tobacco? Lag Time 20-Year Lag Time Between Smoking and Lung Cancer 4000 Cigarettes Smoked per Person per Year 3000 Cigarette consumption (men) Lung cancer (men) 150 100 2000 Lung Cancer Deaths (per 100,000 people) 50 1000 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Year • You may not see the results right away Low-Strength Radiation High Dallas Skin Cancer Incidence Pittsburgh Detroit Low Least Most Annual Sunshine (UV radiation) High-Strength Radiation High Leukemia Incidence Low Least Most X-ray Dose (atomic radiation) How safe would the US have been if Japan’s reactors had failed? Viruses Virus inserts and changes genes for cell growth Cancer-linked virus Examples of Human Cancer Viruses Some Viruses Associated with Human Cancers It is believed that nearly ALL sexually active men/women will contract at least one strain of HPV. Oral cancer from HPV AIDS and Kaposi’s Sarcoma Without disease HIV infection Depressed immune system KSHV infection Kaposi’s sarcoma Bacteria and Stomach Cancer Patient’s tissue sample H. pylori Heredity and Cancer All Breast Cancer Patients Inherited factor(s) Other factor(s) Heredity Can Affect Many Types of Cancer Inherited Conditions That Increase Risk for Cancer Genetic Testing Cancer Risk and Aging Cancer Risk and Aging 400 Colon 300 Breast Number of Cancer Cases 200 (per 100,000 people) 100 0 20 40 60 80 Age of Person (in years) Cancer Prevention Carcinogenic chemicals Carcinogenic radiation Cancer viruses or bacteria Avoid Tobacco Lung Cancer Risk Increases with Cigarette Consumption 15x 10x Lung Cancer Risk 5x 0 Non-smoker 15 Cigarettes Smoked per Day 30 Protect Yourself From Excessive Sunlight Limit Alcohol and Tobacco Combination of Alcohol and Cigarettes Increases Risk for Cancer of the Esophagus 40x 30x Risk Increase 20x 10x Alcoholic Drinks Consumed per Day AND Packs of Cigarettes Consumed per Day Diet: Limit Fats and Calories Correlation Between Meat Consumption and Colon Cancer Rates in Different Countries 40 Number of Cases (per 100,000 people) 30 20 10 0 80 100 200 300 Grams (per person per day) Diet: Consume Fruits and Vegetables Avoid Cancer Viruses High HPV Infection Increases Risk for Cervical Cancer Cervical Cancer Risk Low Noninfected women Women infected with HPV Avoid Carcinogens at Work Some Carcinogens in the Workplace Industrial Pollution Incidence of Most Cancers 1930 1950 1970 Year 1990 Is There a Cancer "Epidemic"?