Understanding SNPs and Cancer

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Transcript Understanding SNPs and Cancer

Understanding Cancer and Related Topics
Understanding Cancer
Developed by:
Lewis J. Kleinsmith, Ph.D.
Donna Kerrigan, M.S.
Jeanne Kelly
Brian Hollen
Discusses and illustrates what cancer is,
explains the link between genes and
cancer, and discusses what is known
about the causes, detection, and
diagnosis of the disease.
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What Causes Cancer?
Some viruses or bacteria
Some chemicals
Radiation
Heredity
Diet
Hormones
Population-Based Studies
Regions of Highest Incidence
U.K.:
Lung
cancer
JAPAN:
Stomach
cancer
CHINA:
Liver
cancer
AUSTRALIA:
Skin
cancer
CANADA:
Leukemia
U.S.:
Colon
cancer
BRAZIL:
Cervical
cancer
Heredity? Behaviors? Other Factors?
Colon Cancer
Stomach Cancer
(Number of new cases
per 100,000 people)
(Number of new cases
per 100,000 people)
100
100
70
50
5
0
7
0
Japan Japanese
families
in U.S.
U.S.
Japan Japanese
families
in U.S.
U.S.
Tobacco Use and Cancer
Some Cancer-Causing Chemicals in Tobacco Smoke
What about smokeless tobacco?
Lag Time
20-Year Lag Time Between
Smoking and Lung Cancer
4000
Cigarettes
Smoked
per Person
per Year
3000
Cigarette
consumption
(men)
Lung
cancer
(men)
150
100
2000
Lung Cancer
Deaths (per
100,000 people)
50
1000
1900 1920 1940 1960 1980
Year
• You may not see the results right away
Low-Strength Radiation
High
Dallas
Skin
Cancer
Incidence
Pittsburgh
Detroit
Low
Least
Most
Annual Sunshine
(UV radiation)
High-Strength Radiation
High
Leukemia
Incidence
Low
Least
Most
X-ray Dose
(atomic radiation)
How safe would the US have been if
Japan’s reactors had failed?
Viruses
Virus inserts
and changes
genes for
cell growth
Cancer-linked virus
Examples of Human Cancer Viruses
Some Viruses Associated with Human Cancers
It is believed that nearly ALL sexually
active men/women will contract at least
one strain of HPV.
Oral cancer from HPV
AIDS and Kaposi’s Sarcoma
Without
disease
HIV infection
Depressed
immune
system
KSHV infection
Kaposi’s
sarcoma
Bacteria and Stomach Cancer
Patient’s
tissue sample
H. pylori
Heredity and Cancer
All Breast Cancer Patients
Inherited factor(s)
Other factor(s)
Heredity Can Affect Many Types of Cancer
Inherited Conditions That Increase Risk for Cancer
Genetic Testing
Cancer Risk and Aging
Cancer Risk and Aging
400
Colon
300
Breast
Number of
Cancer Cases 200
(per 100,000
people)
100
0
20
40
60
80
Age of Person (in years)
Cancer Prevention
Carcinogenic
chemicals
Carcinogenic
radiation
Cancer viruses
or bacteria
Avoid Tobacco
Lung Cancer Risk Increases
with Cigarette Consumption
15x
10x
Lung
Cancer
Risk
5x
0
Non-smoker
15
Cigarettes Smoked per Day
30
Protect Yourself From Excessive Sunlight
Limit Alcohol and Tobacco
Combination of Alcohol and Cigarettes
Increases Risk for Cancer of the Esophagus
40x
30x
Risk
Increase
20x
10x
Alcoholic Drinks
Consumed per Day
AND
Packs of Cigarettes
Consumed per Day
Diet: Limit Fats and Calories
Correlation Between Meat Consumption and
Colon Cancer Rates in Different Countries
40
Number of Cases
(per 100,000
people)
30
20
10
0
80
100
200
300
Grams (per person per day)
Diet: Consume Fruits and Vegetables
Avoid Cancer Viruses
High
HPV Infection Increases
Risk for Cervical Cancer
Cervical
Cancer
Risk
Low
Noninfected
women
Women
infected
with HPV
Avoid Carcinogens at Work
Some Carcinogens in the Workplace
Industrial Pollution
Incidence of
Most Cancers
1930
1950
1970
Year
1990
Is There a Cancer "Epidemic"?