Introduction to Bacteria and Viruses

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Transcript Introduction to Bacteria and Viruses

Introduction to
Bacteria and Viruses
Tara C. Dale
September 7, 2007
Kyrene Akimel A-al Middle School
Bacteria and Viruses
Microbes are things that are so small we can not see
them with our naked eye.
Germs are things that make us sick.
Bacteria can be good, bad, or indifferent to the human
All bacteria and viruses are microbes but not all microbes are
bacteria and viruses.
All germs are bacteria or viruses but not all bacteria are germs.
All viruses are germs.
Viruses are not considered organisms because they are not
considered alive.
Bacteria are unicellular microbes that do not have a nucleus.
Healthy Bacteria
human body contains many bacteria, most
performing useful, and sometimes even
essential, tasks
estimated at 500 – 1,000 different types of
bacteria live in the human body
example of good bacteria include those living in
our digestive tract that break down certain
carbohydrates that our body can’t break down
itself; E.coli
Unhealthy Bacteria and Viruses
Some bacteria are not healthy for the human
body and can cause illness and/or death.
Some viruses kill bacteria so they can be
considered good but they usually kill healthy
cells too so ultimately they are considered
All viruses kill the cells they penetrate; all viruses
are unhealthy
Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1
also known as B Virus
an infectious agent that is commonly found among
macaque monkeys
does not harm monkeys but harms humans – infection is
rare but once you are infected you are likely to die
occurs mostly in lab scientists and veterinarians
infection usually occurs because of
an animal bite, exposure to
monkey’s bodily fluids, or a scratch
no known treatment; CDC has a
team researching one
Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis)
Bacterial infection that can be fatal
Transmitted from mucus of one infected person
to another person; patients with Pertussis cough
Symptoms include hypoxia, apnea, pneumonia,
seizures, encephalopathy, and malnutrition
A vaccine does exist; most who get Pertussis
are too young to be vaccinated
Pertussis Pictures
Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)
Bacterial infection transmitted through infected
food, in a wound that has the bacteria, or by
consuming bacterial spores that create the toxin
Symptoms include double vision, blurred vision,
drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty
swallowing, dry mouth, and muscle weakness
Treatment includes giving patients antitoxin;
most need to be on breathing machines for
several weeks during the treatment
Botulism Picture
A virus transmitted from one infected patient to another
organism, usually from an animal bite
Symptoms include a change in behavior, loss of appetite,
desire to be alone, fever, seizures
Once symptoms begin in humans, there is no treatment;
a vaccination exists for those who are more likely to
come in contact with rabid animals such as veterinarians
Vaccinations and treatment shots take place several
times over a 28-day period; done in the arm and is now
quite painless (historically it was VERY painful)
Rabies Picture
This man had to
be restrained to
keep from
hurting himself
and others.
Streptococcus (Scarlet Fever)
Bacteria that cause strep throat but also a toxin
that causes a distinctive rash called Scarlet
Transmission occurs from person to person
Symptoms include fever, chills, body aches,
nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite may
Treatment involves antibiotics
Scarlet Fever Pictures