Specific Heat Index - Montgomery County Schools

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Transcript Specific Heat Index - Montgomery County Schools

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1. To examine the physical and
chemical properties of water.
2. To analyze the importance of
recirculation and filtration devices in
production aquaculture.
3. To describe the importance of clean,
healthy aquaculture environments
and identify sources and prevention
of pollution.
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• Include the following:
– only natural substance to be found in
liquid, solid and gas forms at normal
temperatures on Earth
– freezes at 32° F (0°C) and boils at 212° F
(100°C)
– possesses very high surface tension
– high specific heat index
Specific Heat Index – the amount of heat needed required to
raise the temperature by one degree Celsius
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• Surface Tension – the property of
liquids which allows their surfaces to
behave like thin, elastic sheets; allows
water to join together to form drops
rather than spread out into a thin film
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• Include the following:
– chemical composition of H2O
• two hydrogen atoms for every
oxygen atom
– dissolves more substances than
any other liquid
– pure water contains a pH of 7.0
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• Determines the use of water for a
particular use, such as swimming,
drinking and even the culture of fish
• Is affected by the following:
– weather
– biomass
– soil
– chemicals
– frequency and amount of fish food
given
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• Are indoor, tank based systems which
allow the formation of tightly
controlled environments through the
constant exchange of water
• Permit high volumes of fish to be
grown
• Are often found where suitable land or
water is limited
• Involve a more intense approach of
farming, using higher volumes of fish
which need more managing
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• Are comprised of the following six
components:
– production tank
– mechanical filtration
– biological filtration
– pumps and water pipes
– quarantine tank
– waste
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• Houses the fish which are being
cultured
• Should be round with sloping bottoms
to ease in removal of solids
• Should undergo at least a 5 to 10
percent rate of exchange everyday,
depending on the amount of fish and
feeding style
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• Removes solids such as feces and uneaten
food from the water
• Ensures waste products do not clog pipes or
other equipment
• Removes decomposing material which
absorbs oxygen needed for fish survival
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• Converts metabolic wastes such as
ammonia and nitrites into nitrates, which will
not harm the fish
• Uses bacteria to oxidize the metabolic
wastes
• Takes a few weeks to allow the bacteria to
colonize and production should be lowered
during this period
Oxidize – to combine an element with oxygen
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• Replenish the production tank if water
levels get too low
• Transport water and air throughout
the recirculatory system
• Should measure the correct size for
your tank to allow for the most
efficient transportation
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• Is completely isolated from the rest of
the recirculatory system
• Houses new fish in order to prevent
the spread of diseases
• Allows for medication to be given to
fish without contaminating the rest of
the environment
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• Often results from nitrogen formed from
feces or uneaten food
• Is removed through mechanical and
biological filtration and taken to a
separate waste container
• Comes in the following three forms:
– settleable: gathers on the bottom of the tank
– suspended: floats in the water and will not
settle
– fine and dissolved solids: float in water and
cause gill irritation as well as health damage
in fish
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• Describes the transformation of
nitrogen and nitrogen based
compounds in nature
• Eliminates ammonia from water,
which is extremely toxic to fish
– ammonia is the result of uneaten
food and metabolic wastes being
broken down
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• Includes the following steps:
– fish wastes or uneaten food produce
ammonia
– ammonia is eaten by nitrosomonas
bacteria, which excrete nitrites
– nitrites are eaten by nitrobacter bacteria,
which excrete nitrates
– nitrates are consumed by algae and
plants, which provide feed to fish
– fish excrete the plants and the cycle
begins again
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Ammonia (NH3)
Fish Wastes,
Uneaten Feed
Fish Feed
Nitrosomonas
Bacteria
Ammonia/Nitrogen
Cycle
Nitrite
(NO2)
Nitrobacter
Bacteria
Algae,
Plants
Nitrate (NO3)
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• Involves maintaining clean production
environments
• Is completed through the routine
inspection of water quality
• Includes monitoring the eating habits
of fish in order to prevent over feeding
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• Are determined through the presence
of contaminants as well as the water’s
characteristics
• Include the following categories:
–biological
–physical
–chemical
–aesthetic
Aesthetic – pleasing or acceptable to the senses;
contaminants which may effect water quality such as
taste, color or odor
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• Include the following:
– “indicator organisms” such as insects,
which begin to disappear as water
quality deteriorates
– algae, which may be an indicator of
either good or bad water quality
depending on the species growing
– bacteria, which may indicate
pathogenic organisms are also present
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•Include the following:
–temperature
–color
–salinity
–suspended solids
–dissolved solids
Salinity – the amount of salt found in a
solution
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• Include the following:
– pH
– nutrients
– dissolved oxygen
– organic compounds
– inorganic compounds
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• Include the following:
– color
– odor
– floating matter
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Water Variants
Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
pH
Ammonia
Nitrate
Nitrite
Acceptable Levels
>6 ppm
1.5 - 3.0 ppm
6.7 - 8.6
<0.02 ppm
<1.0 ppm
<0.1 ppm
Salinity
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
<80 ppm
<400 ppm
Dangerous Levels
<3 ppm
>15 ppm
<4 - 5; >9 - 10
>0.2 - 1.0 ppm
>100 ppm
>2.0 ppm (fresh)
>20 ppm (salt)
>800 ppm
>5,000 - 10,000 ppm
>5,000 - 20,000 ppm
PPM – parts per million; the number of “parts” by
weight of a material per million parts of water
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• Is also known as oxygenation
• Increases the oxygen content of
water used to house fish through
circulating, mixing or dissolving
• May be either of the following:
– passive: naturally exposed to air
– active: an object inserts air, such
as a bubbling device
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• Used in aquaculture include the
following:
– diffused air
– submersible pumps
– propeller aspirator pumps
– paddlewheel aerators
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• Is also known as “trickle aeration”
• Provides the least cost efficient form
of aeration
• Adds oxygen directly to the water
• Circulates water from the top to the
bottom
• Is not suited for shallow watered
tanks
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• Do not add oxygen directly to the water
• Pushes poorer quality water to the top
• May be paired with an elongated outlet which
raises above the water and sprays the water back
to the source
• Are not recommended for large growout ponds
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•
•
•
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Provide good circulation and aeration
Are designed for deeper water
Draw in oxygen and release it into the water
Are suitable for producers interested in providing
more feed in order to increase productions
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• Are the most common aeration system
• Efficiency is due to a combination of strong
circulation and large exposure to oxygen
• Remove aerated water from the area around the
aerator in order to expose new water to oxygen
• Are recommended for larger, shallow growout
ponds
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• May be directly or indirectly caused by farming
fish
– direct pollution includes natural wastes emitted
from the fish such as feces and feed as well
as human aids such as medicine
– indirect pollution comes from sources not
related to aquaculture, such as an oil spill or
human garbage
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• Involves closely monitoring the tank
for any changes
• Includes regularly cleaning the tank
and removing all solid waste particles
• May be accomplished through
establishing proper filtration and
aeration devices
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• Are methods designed to reduce and
prevent water pollution
• Help producers comply with
production laws
• Include recommendations on how to
handle waste water management
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• Should be handled in the following
manners according to the Best
Management Practices:
– implement borders and filters
– create a waste treatment lagoon
– regulate water in drainage system
– create basins to collect waste
runoff
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1. What is the term used to describe the
property which allows water to join together
to form drops rather than spread out into a
thin film?
2. What is the pH of pure water?
3. What is the most common aeration
system? Why?
4. What are some best management practices
for managing waste water?
5. What are three biological indicators of
water quality?
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6. Water possesses a low specific heat index.
a. true
b. false
7. Suspended wastes float in the water, but
will eventually settle.
a. true
b. false
8. The diffused air system is also known as
“trickle aeration.”
a. true
b. false
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9. Color is what kind of indicator for water
quality?
a. physical
b. chemical
c. aesthetic
d. both a and c
10. Propeller respirator pumps are designed
for
a. shallow water
b. deep water
c. growout ponds
d. none of the above
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• Aquaculture Network Information Center
aquanic.org
• NSW Department of Environment & Climate
Change
www.environment.nsw.gov.au
• United States Geological Survey
pubs.usgs.gov
• Primary Industries & Resources South
Australia
govdocs.aquake.org
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• Louisiana State University Agricultural Center
www.lsuagcenter.com
• Queensland Department of Primary Industries &
Fisheries
www2.dpi.qld.gov.au
• Department of Fisheries, Government of Western
Australia
www.fish.wa.gov.au
• Aquaculture Sample Lesson
www.agednet.com
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Production Coordinator:
Brandon O’Quinn
Production Manager:
Dusty Moore
Project Coordinator:
Meghan Blanek
Executive Producers:
Gordon Davis, Ph.D.,
Graphic Designer:
Jeff Lansdell
Ann Adams
© MMIX
CEV Multimedia, Ltd.
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