Stars, Galaxies & Universe

download report

Transcript Stars, Galaxies & Universe

Stars, Galaxies &
Universe
Chapter 3
1
We are learning to:
identify and describe telescopes, probes, satellites, and
space crafts
We are looking for:
telescope- refracting, reflecting, and radio are used to
view distant objects
probe-machines sent to other locations in the solar
system and are used to investigate/explore
satellite-orbits around the earth or other planets and are
used to take photos and collect data
space craft-mode of transportation to send humans to
locations in the solar system;
We are learning to: examine advances of different people, culture, and
times in astronomy.
We are looking for: one or more examples of how science and
technology (in the field of astronomy) has changed and been
improved over time.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Egyptians: polished rock crystal to produce optical illusions
Mozi, a Chinese philosopher- 470 bc- writes on concave mirrors to focus’
sun’s rays
Galileo—1609used the first telescope for astronomy purposes, made
improvements -Italian
Brahe-1572-used an observatory to make observations -Danish
Kepler-1611-used math to interpret Brahe’s observation -Austrian
Newton-1668-made his own reflecting telescope -British
Reber-1937-built first radio telescope -American
Hubble-1925-first to observe the distant galaxies; confirmed an expanding
universe; 1990-first satellite telescope was named after Hubble -American
Tools of Astronomy
• Constellations are
groups of stars that
form a pattern.
• The electromagnetic
spectrum is made of
radio waves, infrared
radiation, visible light,
ultraviolet radiation, xrays, and gamma
rays.
4
Refracting Telescope
• Refracting telescope
collects light using
lenses.
• The lenses bend the
light to the focal point.
5
Reflecting Telescope
• Reflecting telescope
uses a mirror to
collect the light.
• A concave mirror
bends the light inward
to a focal point.
6
Radio Telescope
• Radio telescopes
collects radio waves.
• The collector is a
concave dish.
7
Observatory
• The building that
houses a telescope is
called an observatory.
8
Other Tools of Astronomy
• Telescopes have
been put into space
on satellites & space
stations.
• Spectrographs gather
information about
stars such as a star’s
composition &
temperature.
9
Which type of telescope focuses
light using a mirror?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Reflecting Telescope
Refracting Telescope
Radio Telescope
Infrared Telescope
I need help!
0
R
l
ef
tin
ec
g
.
l..
e
T
R
ct
ra
f
e
0
g
in
.
l..
e
T
R
ad
io
Te
0
s
le
..
p.
co
In
d
re
fra
0
T
es
el
0
...
e
In
ed
!
lp
e
h
10
Which type of telescope focuses
light through transparent lenses?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Reflecting Telescope
Refracting Telescope
Radio Telescope
Infrared Telescope
I need Help!
0
R
l
ef
tin
ec
g
.
l..
e
T
R
ct
ra
f
e
0
g
in
.
l..
e
T
R
ad
io
Te
0
s
le
..
p.
co
In
d
re
fra
0
T
es
el
0
...
e
In
ed
H
p
el
!
10
One of the greatest advancements in
astronomy was the telescope. Which is
the correct order of advancements?
ad
!
el
p
h
d
ee
re
fle
c
io
-
ti
n
ef
ra
c
0
t.
..
gre
f.
..
–
g
R
ct
in
ef
le
R
0
R
t.
..
re
fr
ac
io
ad
0
In
0
r.
..
0
R
A. Radio- refracting-reflecting
B. Reflecting – refracting –
radio
C. Refracting-reflecting-radio
D. Radio- reflecting-refracting
E. I need help!
10
Which of the following is an advantage of
a space-based, satellite telescope like
Hubble?
E.
0
0
0
el
p
...
h
es
In
ee
d
p
co
es
te
l
at
el
lit
e
te
l
S
S
at
el
lit
e
lit
e
te
l
es
es
co
co
p
p
es
es
c.
.
a.
.
!
0
a.
.
es
p
co
es
te
l
at
el
S
D.
0
lit
e
C.
at
el
B.
Satellite telescopes are much closer
to the stars.
Satellite telescopes are able to see
through solid objects.
Satellite telescopes can detect
wavelengths that are blocked by the
atmosphere.
Satellite telescopes have the ability
to see the future.
I need help!
S
A.
10
Focus Free Write (3 minutes)
Explain how the advancements in
telescopes have helped astronomers learn
more about the universe.
When finished, trade your paper with a
partner. Revise if there are
misconceptions or any incorrect
information.
Explain how the advancements in
telescopes have helped astronomers
learn more about the universe.
0 0 0 23 021345 9876543210
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
Explain how the advancements in
telescopes have helped astronomers
learn more about the universe.
Insert Text Here
0 0 0 12 021345 9876543210
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
Explain how the advancements in
telescopes have helped astronomers
learn more about the universe.
Insert Text Here
0 0 0 01 021345 9876543210
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
TIME IS UP!!!
Now share your writing with a
partner. Correct any
misconceptions or any incorrect
information.
Distances to Stars
• A light year is the
distance light travels in
year.
• Astronomers often use
parallax to measure
distances to nearby stars.
• Parallax is the apparent
change in position of an
object when you look at it
from different places.
20
We are learning to: explain interstellar
distances are measured in light years
We are looking for: the explanation of and
the use of the light year
*explain a light year as the distance light
travels in a year
*explain that distances are too great to be
measured in miles or kilometers
A light year is a measurement of…
!.
no
w
’t
k
Id
cc
on
el
er
at
io
d
ee
A
0%
..
0%
n
0%
Sp
m
e
0%
Ti
an
ce
0%
is
t
Distance
Time
Speed
Acceleration
I don’t know! I
need help!
D
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
10
Why do astronomers measure interstellar
distances in light years instead of
kilometers or miles?
A. Light years are a measure
of time.
B. Miles and kilometers are too
small of a unit.
C. Miles and kilometers are too
large of a unit.
D. I don’t know! I need help!
0
L
ht
ig
ye
s
ar
0
...
ar
M
ile
s
d
an
.
lo
ki
0
..
M
ile
s
d
an
.
lo
ki
0
..
o
Id
t
n’
ow
kn
!.
..
10
You are viewing a star that is 20 light years
away. When was the light from this star
produced?
!.
..
0%
Id
on
’t
kn
ow
sa
go
0%
ea
r
2y
rs
ye
a
ou
ry
Af
te
10
w
w
yo
u
0%
ag
o
0%
er
e.
..
er
...
0%
Be
fo
re
a) Before you were
born
b) After you were
born
c) 10 years ago
d) 2 years ago
e) I don’t know! I
need help!
10
What if….
there was a supernova that happened
yesterday. The star that exploded was 180 light
years away. When would you observe the
supernova and what would you see?
After answering this question, meet with a
partner to compare your responses. Collaborate
to make a new paired response to the question.
We are learning to: examine the life cycle of a star (characteristics;
HR diagram)
We are looking for: a description of how stars are classified by
characteristics and then organized on an HR diagram.
Characteristics
Size- Giant, main sequence, and dwarf
Temperature- blue=hot; red=cooler
Brightness- apparent brightness and absolute magnitude
HR diagram shows temperature, brightness, color of stars and
where the star is in its life cycle.
Used to graph the surface temperature (x-axis) vs. brightness (yaxis)
Hotter stars are on left side of graph; cooler stars on the right
side of the graph
Brighter stars on top of graph; dimmer stars on bottom of graph
Characteristics of Stars
• A galaxy contains
hundreds of billions of
stars.
• The universe contains
billions of galaxies.
27
Classifying Stars
• Stars are classified by
size, temperature, and
brightness.
• Temperature of a star is
indicated by color, hot
stars are blue & cooler
stars are red.
• Apparent brightness is
the brightness of a star as
observed from earth.
• Absolute magnitude is the
brightness of a star
observed at the distance
of 10 parsecs.
28
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
• H-R diagram is a
graph of the Milky
Way galaxy.
• Surface temperature
is graphed on the xaxis.
• Absolute magnitude is
graphed on the yaxis.
29
Types of Stars
• Blue super giants have a
high brightness and high
temperature.
• Red giants & super giants
have a high brightness
and low temperature.
• White dwarfs have a low
brightness and high
temperature.
• 90% of all stars appear
on the Main Sequence
going from the upper left
to the lower right corner.
30
Life Cycle of Star Interactive
Video
• http://www.asccsa.gc.ca/eng/educators/resources/astron
omy/multimedia/module2/star_lifecycle/sta
r_lifecycle.swf
Which characteristic of stars cause
them to be different colors?
he
d
ee
In
ze
si
0%
lp
.
0%
ra
tu
re
0%
m
pe
di
st
an
ce
0%
te
em
ic
al
c
om
po
...
0%
ch
a) chemical
composition
b) distance
c) size
d) temperature
e) I need help.
10
Which color would describe the
youngest and hottest star?
blue
red
orange
yellow
I need help!
0%
he
llo
w
lp
!
0%
In
ee
d
ye
ge
0%
or
an
d
0%
re
ue
0%
bl
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
10
Which star would be the brightest if
all the stars are the same distance
from Earth?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Main sequence
Red giants
Red super giants
White dwarf
I need help.
0%
M
n
ai
se
q
nc
ue
e
R
ed
0%
an
gi
R
ts
ed
s
er
up
0%
an
gi
ts
W
te
hi
0%
dw
0%
f
ar
e
In
ed
he
.
lp
10
How would you classify our star,
the sun, on the H-R diagram?
Main sequence
Red giant
White dwarf
Red supergiant
I need help.
In
ee
d
he
gi
a
pe
r
su
ed
R
0%
lp
.
0%
nt
ar
f
hi
te
W
ed
R
0%
dw
gi
an
e
en
c
qu
se
ai
n
0%
t
0%
M
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
10
Red Giant
Main Sequence
Birth of a Star
• A star begins as a
cloud of gas and dust
called a nebula.
• Gravity pulls the gas
and dust together into
a protostar.
• A star is born when
the contracting gas
and dust becomes so
hot that nuclear fusion
begins.
37
Length of Life of a Star
• More massive stars
live short lives of
millions of years.
• Less massive stars
live long lives of
billions of years.
• The sun will live for 910 billion years.
38
We are learning to: Examine the life cycle of a star and predict the
next likely stage .
We are looking for: progression of the stages of a star’s life
Nebulae- cloud of gas and dust
Protostar- fusion begins
Main sequence- average star
Giant/red-giant- more massive stars
Nova/supernova - exploding star
White dwarf- no nuclear process
Black dwarf- no heat or light
Black Hole (area of large gravitational attraction) or Neutron
star (very dense star)
During the Life Cycle of a Star
• Stars fuse hydrogen
into helium during
most of their lives.
• After all the hydrogen
has been fused into
helium, the star fuses
helium into carbon,
carbon into oxygen
and then oxygen into
iron.
40
Death of a Star
• Stars use up their
hydrogen and expand
their atmosphere.
• Stars that are less than
1.4 solar masses will
shrink to a white dwarf.
• Stars between 1.4 -3.0
solar masses will produce
a supernova and leave a
neutron star.
• Stars more than 3.0 solar
masses will produce a
supernova and collapse
into a black hole.
41
If given a protostar, what is the next
likely stage of the star?
Super Giant
Nova
Main Sequence
Neutron Star
I need some help
78%
17%
r
St
a
In
ee
d
so
m
e
n
tro
Ne
u
ue
n
Se
q
ain
he
lp
0%
ce
No
va
4%
M
Gi
a
nt
0%
Su
pe
r
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
What is the first stage of the birth of
a star?
Protostar
Nebula
Giant
Dwarf
I need some help.
75%
25%
0%
so
m
e
Dw
he
lp
.
ar
f
0%
In
ee
d
nt
Gi
a
Ne
bu
la
st
ar
0%
Pr
ot
o
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
What happens to the most massive
stars as they near their death?
a) super nova to a
black hole
b) super nova to a
red giant
c) becomes a white
dwarf
d) nothing happens
e) I need some help.
75%
13% 13%
he
lp
.
0%
so
m
e
pe
ns
ha
p
In
ee
d
ng
no
th
i
es
om
be
c
no
va
to
aw
ar
hi
te
ed
gi
dw
ar
an
t
e
ol
kh
lac
ab
to
su
pe
r
no
va
su
pe
r
f
0%
What is the next likely stage of our
sun?
White dwarf
Black dwarf
Red giant
Super nova
I need help
58%
33%
4%
4%
he
lp
In
ee
d
no
va
Su
pe
r
nt
gia
d
Re
ac
k
Bl
te
dw
dw
ar
ar
f
f
0%
W
hi
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Focused Free Write (Pass the
Pen)
• Describe what will happen to the Earth as
the sun becomes a red giant?
Insert Text Here
0 0 0 01 021345 9876543210
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
Ppass the paper
Insert Text Here
0 0 0 01 021345 9876543210
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
Ppass the paper
Insert Text Here
0 0 0 01 021345 9876543210
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
Ppass the paper
Insert Text Here
0 0 0 01 021345 9876543210
Hours
Minutes
Seconds
Ptime is up
Star Systems
• Most stars are members
of groups of two or more
stars called star systems.
• Star systems with two
stars are called double
stars or binary stars.
• Binary eclipsing stars are
stars where one star
blocks the light from
another.
55
Galaxies
•
•
Galaxies are a group
of billions of stars.
Type of galaxies are
1. Elliptical
2. Spiral
3. Irregular
56
Elliptical Galaxy
• Old galaxy.
• Contains red star that
are old.
• No gas or dust.
57
Spiral Galaxy
• Middle aged galaxy.
• Contains blue stars.
• Has some dust and
gas.
• Our Milky Way is a
spiral galaxy.
58
Irregular Galaxy
• Unorganized
collection of stars.
• Made of very young
stars.
• Has a great deal of
gas and dust.
59
History of the Universe
• Edwin Hubble
discovered that the
farther away a galaxy
is from us, the faster it
is moving away from
us.
• Stars moving away
from us shows a red
shift.
60
Big Bang Theory
• Big Bang Theory
suggest that billions
of years ago, the
universe was small,
hot and dense and
then the universe
exploded.
• The universe formed
in this enormous
explosion about 10 to
15 billion years ago.
61
Formation of the Solar System
• The solar system
formed 5 billion years
ago.
• The solar system
formed from a giant
cloud of gas and dust,
or nebula.
62
Future of the Universe
• The universe may
continue to expand.
• Gravity may pull the
universe back
together.
63
By what are galaxies classified?
Color
Temperature
Size
Shape
e
ap
Sh
ze
0%
Te
m
pe
0%
Si
0%
ra
tu
re
ol
or
0%
C
a)
b)
c)
d)
10
64
What type of galaxy is illustrated in
the following picture?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Irregular
Spiral
Elliptical
I have no
idea.. I need
help!
0% 0% 0% 0%
u
eg
Irr
r
la
l
ir a
p
S
E
Ih
ic
pt
lli
e
av
no
al
ea
id
I
..
e
ne
..
d.
10
65
What type of galaxies contain older
stars?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Elliptical
Irregular
Barred shape
spiral
0%
E
ic
pt
lli
0%
al
e
Irr
r
la
gu
B
d
re
ar
0%
s
p
ha
e
0%
i
sp
l
ra
10
66
Review Questions
• What are the three types of galaxies?
• elliptical, spiral & irregular
• Distances between stars are measured in
units called _______.
• light years
• Stars begin as a cloud of gas & dust
known as a __________.
• nebula
67
Review Questions
• What does the length of life of a star depends
on?
• mass of the star
• What is the name of our galaxy?
• Milky Way
• What type of galaxy is the Milky Way?
• spiral
• What is the name of the theory of the creation of
the universe?
• Big Bang
68
Review Questions
• What type of tools are used to study the
universe?
• telescope
• Which type of telescope uses mirrors?
• reflecting
• Which type of telescope uses lenses?
• refracting
69
Review Questions
• What indicates how hot a star is?
• color of the star
• During nuclear fusion, what does
hydrogen fuse into?
• helium
• What is graphed on the H-R diagram?
• brightness & temperature
70
Review Questions
• What is the brightness of a star as seen
from earth?
• apparent brightness
• What is the brightness of a star that is
seen at a standard distance of ten
parsecs?
• absolute magnitude
71
Review Questions
• What process is used to measure the
distance of nearby stars?
• parallax
• What type of telescope collect
electromagnetic waves other than light?
• radio telescope
• How long ago did the Big Bang occur?
• 10-15 billion years ago
72
Review Questions
•
•
•
•
•
What are patterns of stars in the sky called?
Constellations
What is the building called that has a telescope?
Observatory
Which type of galaxy has red stars and no gas
or dust?
• elliptical
73
Review Questions
• Which type of galaxy has blue stars and
some gas & dust?
• spiral galaxy
• Galaxies are classified by their _______.
• shape
• Who proposed that the universe is
expanding?
• Hubble
74
Review Questions
• What evidence do we have that the
universe is expanding?
• red shift
• What happens to a small star at its death?
• white dwarf
• What happens to a very large star at its
death?
• Supernova to a black hole
75
Practice Extended Answer
Questions
• Describe the life cycle of a star.
• What are the three types of telescopes and how
are they different?
• Explain the H-R diagram.
• How does the mass of a star affect the length of
life of a star?
• How do the different types of galaxies compare?
• Explain the Big Bang Theory.
76
One of the greatest advancements in astronomy
was the telescope. Which is the correct order of
advancements?
ti
n
re
fle
c
R
ad
io
-
ti
n
ef
ra
c
0
gre
fr
...
-..
.
g
ct
in
ti
n.
..
0
gre
fl
e
fr
ac
re
g
R
ct
in
R
ef
le
io
ad
0
–
re
fr
ac
ti
n
gre
fl.
..
0
R
A. Radio- refractingreflecting
B. Reflecting –
refracting –radio
C. Refractingreflecting-radio
D. Radio- reflectingrefracting
77
What is the next likely stage of a
protostar?
Super Giant
Nova
Main Sequence
Neutron Star
0%
St
ar
a
eu
N
Se
M
ai
n
tro
n
qu
en
ov
N
ia
n
pe
rG
0%
ce
0%
t
0%
Su
a)
b)
c)
d)
10
78
Why do astronomers measure interstellar
distances in light years instead of kilometers or
miles?
0
...
.
a
cl
ue
..
er
s
av
e
Id
on
’t
h
an
d
s
M
ile
s
ile
ki
lo
m
et
er
s
...
an
d
ki
lo
m
et
m
ea
a
ar
e
M
0
a.
.
0
a.
.
0
ar
s
D.
ye
C.
gh
t
B.
Light years are a
measure of time.
Miles and kilometers are
too small of a unit.
Miles and kilometers are
too large of a unit.
I don’t have a clue . . .
help me!
Li
A.
79
Which of the following correctly shows the age
progression of an average star?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Main sequence→White
Dwarf→Red Giant
→Nebula
Red Giant →White
Dwarf →Main Sequence
→Nebula
Nebula →Main
Sequence →Red Giant
→White Dwarf
White Dwarf →Red
Giant →Main Sequence
→Nebula
80
What type of galaxy is shown in the
picture?
A. Irregular
0
B. Spiral
0
C. Elliptical
0
D. I have no idea … I need help!!!
0
81