2011 Final Review

download report

Transcript 2011 Final Review

2012 Final Review
• RATHER THAN DOING A REGULAR TEST (MULTIPLE
CHOICE/ESSAY/SHORT ANSWER), WE WILL DO AN
ACTIVITY WHERE WE COVER THE HIGHLIGHTS OF THE
YEAR’S TOPICS USING DIAGRAMS, PICTURES, AND A
FEW SHORT EXPLANATIONS
• THIS ACTIVITY HAS THREE OBJECTIVES:
1) REVIEW THE MAJOR “YOU SHOULD KNOW
THESE THINGS” IDEAS
2) SHOW THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE IDEAS
WE HAVE LEARNED
3) TRACK HOW CARBON IS INVOLVED IN ALL OUR
MAJOR IDEAS AND THAT IT NEVER GOES AWAY—
IT JUST BECOMES PART OF DIFFERENT MOLECULES
• We will do the activity during the final exam
time—so you will have plenty of time to
accurately complete your diagrams.
• You will be able to do the final in groups of 34 students
• We will spend the next two days going back
over the major ideas to make sure we have a
solid understanding of this year’s most
important concepts
CARBON?
MOLECULE
WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?
C
C
C
C
FROM THE CO2 THAT WAS USED
DURING PHOTOSYNTHESIS
GLUCOSE
C
FIGURE 2-11
Bonded Amino Acids
INSULIN
TRANSPORT
PROTEIN
C
PROTEINS ARE MADE OF AMINO
ACIDS. WE BREAK THE PROTEIN
DOWN DURING DIGESTION—
THEN REASSESMBLE THE AMINO
ACIDS IN A SPECIFIC ORDER
C
C
C
BROWN WALKING STICKS
(HOMOZYGOUS DOMINANT)
ENZYME CAN BE
DRAWN LIKE THIS:
BROWN-GREEN WALKING STICKS
c
c
c
GREEN WALKING STICKS
Make a food web with the following organisms. Make
sure the arrows show the correct transfer of energy.
Grass, Walking sticks, Birds, Crickets, Frogs, Hawks,
Snakes
WALKING
STICKS
BIRDS
HAWKS
GRASS
CRICKETS
FROGS
SNAKES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Matter Transfer
Form of carbon in the atmosphere CO2
Form of carbon in a plant GLUOCSE/STARCH
How carbon gets from the atmosphere to the plant
(process) PHOTOSYNTHESIS
What other molecule(s) would this process need?
H2O
Energy source to get it started? SUN
Form of carbon that gets into the walking stick from
(glucose)-the grass (and how it gets there) STARCH
EATING
Form of carbon that gets into the bird from the
walking sticks GLYCOGEN(glucose)-EATING
• When the bird uses some of the matter it got when
it ate some walking sticks—what form of carbon
does the matter get converted to? CO2
• What process makes this change? CELLULAR RESPIRATION
• What other molecule(s) would this process need?
O2
• Where does the matter go after this process is
complete? ATMOSPHERE AS CO2
• Once the carbon is back in the atmosphere—where
does it go/get used? TO PLANTS FOR
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• Following the same transfer—Grass—Walking Stick—
Bird--- follow energy.
SUN
• Where does the energy begin and what form? (LIGHT)
• What form of energy does it get changed into by the
plant? CHEMICAL
• What form of energy is transferred to the walking
sticks—and then to the birds when they are eaten?
CHEMICAL
• What happens to the energy at the end of the food
chain? (all the energy eventually becomes this type)
THERMAL (Heat)
• Do birds get all the energy contained in the grass and
walking sticks? Explain NO. THE GRASS AND WALKING STICKS
USE SOME OF THE ENERGY BEFORE
THE BIRDS EAT THEM AND NOT ALL
GRASS OR WALKING STICKS GET EATEN
• Based on this information—how is energy
different from matter?
• ENERGY IS USED UP AFTER IT IS
TRANSFORMED (USEABLE ENERGY)
• BODY HEAT DOESN’T GO BACK TO THE SUN
• ENERGY MUST BE ADDED CONSTANTLY
• MATTER IS CYCLED– CO2 TO GLUCOSE TO CO2
• NO NEW MATTER IS ADDED—IT JUST
CHANGES FORMS
A bird eats a bite of walking stick which has the following protein and starch molecules:
On the picture below, show
what the starch and protein
would look like (1)in the bird’s
stomach right after it has been
swallowed , (2) in the small
intestine, and (3) in the blood
Blood Vessel
stomach
Small intestine
Draw a section of cell membrane below that would show the
phospholipid bilayer, 2 transport proteins, water and oxygen molecules
moving in, co2 molecules moving out, and glucose and some amino acids
moving in. Make sure to show the correct concentration difference that
would allow these molecules to move in or out.
• Once the glucose molecules are in the
bird’s cells, what can be done with them?
• They can be used for cellular respiration
or can stored as glycogen for later use
• Once the amino acids are in the bird’s cells, what
can be done with them?
• They can be reassembled into many
different kinds of proteins—depending on
the instructions from the DNA sequence
(gene)
• WHAT DETERMINES WHETHER A BIRD’S CELLS
PRODUCE A PARTICULAR PROTEIN OR NOT?
• DNA
• HOW DOES THE DNA DETERMINE THIS?
• DNA IS THE INSTRUCTIONS FOR HOW TO BUILD
INSULIN OR AN ENZYME (PROTEINS) USING AMINO
ACIDS FROM THEIR FOOD
• WHERE IS THE DNA CODE FOUND IN THE CELL?
• NUCLEUS
• WHAT CELL PART (ORGANELLE) PUTS THE AMINO
ACIDS TOGETHER BASED ON THE DNA INSTRUCTIONS?
• RIBOSOMES
• DNA IS IN THE NUCLEUS—RIBOSOMES ARE IN THE
CYTOPLASM? HOW DO THE DIRECTIONS GET TO THE
RIBOSOMES?
• mRNA
THE FOLLOWING SEQUENCE OF DNA IS THE TOP STRAND
(NOT THE CODING STRAND)– FILL IN THE LETTERS OF THE
MISSING BOTTOM STRAND BASED ON HOW DNA PAIRS
TACGGCACCGGACCGTTAA
AUGCCGTGGCCTGGCAATT
AMINO
ACIDS
ASN
PRO
GLU
ASP
GLY
ARG
MET
ALA
AMINO ACID
SEQUENCE
FOR A
PROTEIN
Using the bottom strand as the coding sequence, show the mRNA strand that would be
created—and then using the codon table—the amino acids that would be coded for by the
ribosomes. Lastly—draw the amino acids together in a chain and determine which would
make a functional enzyme—and which would make a nonfunctional enzyme.
1
ATG CCC GAT CGG CGC GAA TGA
TAC GGG CTA GCC GCG CTT ACT
AMINO ACID NAMES
MET-PRO-ASP-ARG-ARG-GLU-STOP
2
ATG GCC GAC CGG GGG GAG TAC
TAC CGG CTG GCC CCC CTC ATG
AMINO ACID NAMES
MET-ALA-ASP-ARG-GLY-GLU-
mRNA
AUG CCC GAU CGG CGC GAA UGA
THIS MATCHES THE ORDER OF
THE FUNCTIONAL PROTEIN
mRNA
AUG GCC GAC CGG GGG GAG UAC
THIS DOES NOT MATCH THE ORDER
OF THE FUNCTIONAL PROTEIN