Maintaining an Alkaline Environment

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Transcript Maintaining an Alkaline Environment

CAND
Orientation
2004
Health Fusion 2011
Maintaining an Alkaline
Environment
Dr. Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND
Dr. Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND
www.naturopathicfoundations.ca
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Goal of Session
 Discuss the impact of acid-alkaline
imbalances.
 Discuss what is required to maintain an
optimum pH for health.
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Yin
Yang
Alkaline
Acid
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Individual
Disease
Process /
Symptoms
Social
Environment
External
Medical
Interventions
Physiology
Energetic pattern
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Inflammation . . . . Cancer
Lifestyle
Filter Constitution / Senses
Genetics /
|Gestational
Maintenance of homeostasis
Personal
Essence
Level of Health
/ Disease
Acute – Chronic – Life Threatening Palliative
Causal Factors
Of Disease
Energetic pattern
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Levels of Defense / Filters
a) Skin
b) Mucous membranes, lining of all orifices (mouth, nose,
throat, etc.)
c) Digestive membranes
d) Immune system and its ability to destroy invaders
e) Inflammatory pathways
f) Ability of body to neutralize acids / toxins
g) Hydration
h) Sense of safety / security
i) Personal boundaries
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Homeostatic Mechanisms
1. Water balance
2. Acid-base regulation
3. Electrolyte regulation
4. Thermoregulation
5. Metabolic control
• Common in all living organisms
• Homeostatic mechanisms take place between the connective tissue
and the kidneys via the blood (balancing of the internal milieu).
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The Role of Water
 Cellular Communication uses water and water is the primary
vehicle for the transmission of chemicals, hormones, and
nutrients throughout the body.
 Water is the medium responsible for sending and amplifying
energetic wave patterns.
 In every cell there is one molecule of protein for every ten
thousand molecules of water and it is water that holds the
double helix together.
 Water copies, memorizes, and carries energetic signals and
messages.
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Regulation of Water
 The amphoteric properties of water are important in
determining its properties as a solvent for acid-base
reactions.
 Essential to maintain acid/base and electrolyte balance
 A 4% drop in body fluids cause a 30% loss in cellular energy
 Removes waste products/acids from the body
 Regulates body temperature
 Total amount of IC and EC water maintained by CNS (ADH)
and kidneys
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Definition of Acid-Base Reactions
Chemical processes typified by the exchange of one or more
hydrogen ions between species that are neutral (water, acetic
acid) or electrically charged (ammonia, OH, carbonate).
 2 considerations: chemical reactions and equilibrium
reactions
 Regulates vital body functions: respiration, circulation,
digestion, elimination, immunity, hormone production
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Acid-Base Reactions
Acid:
• Strength depends on the hydrogen ion concentration
• Any compound which can donate a proton; reacts with water.
• Sour or sharp taste, burning sensation with skin contact
Base:
• Strength depends on the hydroxyl ion concentration
• Any compound that can accept a proton
• Bitter taste, slippery or soapy feel
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pH
• pH is the measurement of electrical resistance between
negative and positive ions in the body.
• Alkaline and acid forming reactions are purely electrochemical
• Acid/base balance ~ electrolyte balance
• Acid/base reactions are reversible
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pH of Body Fluids
 pH: 1 – 14 with 7 being neutral; overall body slightly alkaline
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ICF: pH ~ 7.4; ECF: pH ~ 7.2
Blood: pH of 7.35 – 7.45 (most closely controlled)
Stomach acid: pH of 1.5 – 1.8
Acid excretion limit of the kidneys is 4.0 – 4.4
Urine: pH of 4.0 – 8.0
Heart muscle: pH of 6.9
Saliva: pH of 6.5 – 7.0
Connective tissue: pH of 7.1 – 7.25
Pancreatic juices: pH of 8.3
Amniotic fluid: pH of 8.5
Bile: pH of 8.8
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Acid-Base Equilibrium Disruption
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Ingestion / exposure to acids
Increased production of H+
Impaired excretion
Dehydration
Loss of buffering ability
Diseases (e.g., diabetes)
 Rate Determining Steps
 Alkaline reserves
 Cellular energy reserves
 Ability to excrete acids
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Acid-Base Equilibrium Disruption
Physiological Responses
 Hyperventilation
 Hypoxia
 High temperatures
 Disproportionate systemic circulation
 Changes in levels of potassium and other electrolytes
 Destruction of protective barriers or tissues
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Electrolyte Balance
 Every biological chemical process involves acid-base
equilibrium
 Water and electrolyte balance / ratio between ICF & ECF
 Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
 pH ~7.2
 Sodium – primary ion
 Chloride and Bicarbonate – primary anion
 Intracellular Fluid (ICF)
 pH ~7.4
 Potassium – primary ion
 Protein and phosphate – primary anions
 Double the size of the ECF
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Electrolyte Balance
ECF
ICF
Cations ( + electrical charge)
Sodium: 142
Potassium: 4
Calcium: 5
Magnesium: 3
Total: 154 mEq/L
Cations ( + electrical charge)
Sodium: 10
Potassium: 160
Calcium: 0
Magnesium: 35
Total: 205 mEq/L
Anions ( - electrical charge)
Chloride: 103
Bicarbonate: 27
Phosphate: 2
Sulphate: 1
Protein: 16
Organic acid: 5
Total: 154 mEq/L
Anions ( - electrical charge)
Chloride: 2
Bicarbonate: 8
Phosphate: 140
Sulphate: 0
Protein: 55
Organic acid: 0
Total: 205 mEq/L
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Impact of Electrolyte Imbalance
 Water retention causes increase in both ICF and ECF
 Dehydration causes decrease in both ICF and ECF
 Alkalosis: causes a shift in potassium from ECF to ICF
 Acidosis: causes a shift in potassium from ICF to ECF
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Electrolyte Balance
 If the fluids stray even a small degree the function of
enzymes and proteins, the metabolism of cells and the
electromagnetic energy of the body is altered. Nerves and
muscles weaken.
 The ratio of IC and EC positive and negative electrolytes
changes with pH, the electric action potential within cells
diminishes due to acidification adaptation resulting in
fatigue and loss of energy production.
 The ratio of IC and EC anions and cations determines the
speed of electrical activity, which in turn determines the rate
of cellular regeneration.
 As long as the anion/cation ratio stays intact, the total
number of electrolytes can go up or down and the acid-base
equilibrium required for cell regeneration is maintained.
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Organ Systems Responsible for Acid /
Alkaline Levels
 Blood: Calcium and other minerals and electrolytes are
leached from bone and other tissues such as hair and nails if
too acidic
 Kidneys: Primary organ responsible for excreting acid and
regulating electrolyte balance
 Lungs: Regulate acidity by excreting CO2. Most efficient way
of maintaining acid/base balance
 Skin: Secondary kidney
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High Acidity
 Arises to due increased exposure to acidic forming substances
and energies and when nutrient intake (minerals and
vitamins) fail to meet the requirements for energy production
and can no longer buffer the acids.
 Waste products that are not eliminated are reabsorbed
primarily from the colon – liver – circulation and tissues.
 Cells and connective tissue stores partially metabolized by
products of glucose and fat which are acidic.
 Higher than normal acid levels in body fluids and tissues
result in hardening and erosion within the system.
 Cells do not utilize oxygen efficiently
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High Acidity
 It is the tissue residue that determines sickness or health.
 Symptoms and diseases include: heavy or rapid breathing,
weakness, headaches, aches and pains, calcifications,
infections, increased ageing.
 Respiratory acidosis – kidneys retain increased amounts of
bicarbonate (HCO3) to increase pH
 Pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, COPD, bronchitis,
asthma
 Metabolic acidosis – lungs “blow off” CO2 to raise pH
 chronic diarrhea, diabetes, renal failure, chronic diseases,
cancer
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Alkalosis
 Higher than normal base levels in body fluids
 Prolonged alkalosis associated with convulsions, muscular
weakness, coma or death
 Respiratory alkalosis – kidneys excrete increased amounts of
bicarbonate (HCO3) to lower pH
 Hyperventilation, pain, drugs etc.
 Metabolic alkalosis – lungs retain CO2 to lower pH
 Sodium bicarbonate overdose, drugs, prolonged vomiting,
nasogastric drainage
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Buffering Process
 Ideally: Waste products of glucose  uses enzymes 
carbonic acid  H20 + CO2 (which is exhaled)
 Problems arise when there is a deficiency of enzymes and
nutrients to fully break-down glucose
 Enzymes require vitamins and minerals to function (K, Mg,
Mn, Cu, Fe, Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and CoQ10)
 If the food comes with these nutrients that OK – procesed
food is deficient in vitamins and minterals
 If lacking vitamins and minerals then enzymes become
redundant and the cells accumulate partially metabolized byproducts of glucose and fat – which are acids – these acids
need to be neutralized or buffered until removed by the KI.
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Buffering Process
 Buffering systems involves primarily blood, kidneys and
lungs and cellular fluids.
 Respiratory system has the ability to restore acid-base
equilibrium quickly; kidneys take several days.
 Acids have to be neutralized or buffered within the cells until
the kidneys remove them – slower process – acids
accumulate.
 Kidneys will adjust the ratio of anions and cations (positive
and negative ions), placing more or less buffering bicarbonate
into the blood.
 System is easily taxed.
Dr. Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND
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Buffering Process
 The most important buffer for maintaining acid-base balance
in the blood is the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer.
 H+(aq) + HCO3-(aq) ↔ H2CO3(aq) ↔ H2O(l) + CO2(g)
 Metabolic pH is stabilized by the buffering capacity of
hemoglobin (Hb) and anions in the blood and cellular fluids,
bicarbonate regulated by kidneys and by excretion of CO2 in
the lungs.
 Most bicarbonate that forms within cells moves into the EC
space in exchange for chloride ions.
 Elevated CO2 concentration stimulates hyperventilation
Dr. Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND
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Buffering Process
 Using high pH bodily fluids such as water as a solvent to
neutralize acid residues.
 Pulling bicarbonate from the pancreas into the blood (an
alkalizing agent).
 Protein buffers of glutathione, methionine, cysteine, taurine,
act as buffers intra-cellularly to bind or neutralize acids
during cellular disorganization.
 Takes the electrolytes from wherever it can: bone, hair, etc.
and the electrolyte buffers of sodium, calcium and potassium
work in the blood, lymph and extra-cellular and intra-cellular
fluids to bind acids, which are then removed through the
urine.
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Buffering Process
 Bones release calcium in exchange for H+ hence bones and
teeth become deficient of calcium (and magnesium) and soft
tissues and fascia harden with Ca2+ precipitates.
 Filtration and elimination of acidic residues through the
skin, urinary tract and respiration.
 Pushing blood acid residues and accumulated toxins into
outer extremities as a storage bin away from vital organs.
The wrist, joints, fingers, toes and skin are the major target
areas to keep the toxins from saturating internal vital organs
like the heart and lungs.
Dr. Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND
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Buffering Systems
 When the protection phases are overwhelmed, the
end result is accumulated acid residues at the
cellular level, which drown out oxygen. With this
acidic, low oxygen terrain, the microzyma’s trigger
morbid microbe infiltration of fungus, molds and
parasites, cancer cells, etc., where they seek the
diseased terrain as food.
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Role of Vitamins and Minerals
Alkaline Forming Minerals
Acid Forming Minerals
• Increase the body’s ability to
• Decrease the ability of the
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generate energy.
Calcium
Magnesium
Sodium
Potassium
Iron
Manganese
body to generate energy.
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Chloride
Iodine
Bromine
Flourine
Copper
Silicon
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Minerals
 Macro-minerals: calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride,
phosphorus and sulfur
 Micro-minerals: zinc, copper, manganese, selenium,
chromium, iodine, iron, cobalt, nickel, boron, silica,
molybdenum, boron, fluoride
 Some controversial minerals that may be essential:
strontium, silver, arsenic, bismuth, cesium, rubidium,
germanium, lithium, gold, and others
 Rare earth minerals.
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Reduction in Average Mineral Content of
Fruits & Vegetables Between 1940 and 1991
Minerals
Sodium
Potassium
Magnesium
Calcium
Iron
Copper
Zinc
Vegetables
-49%
-16%
-24%
-46%
-27%
-76%
-59%
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Fruit
-29%
-19%
-16%
-16%
-24%
-20%
-27%
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Impact of a Deficiency of Nutrients /
Enzymes
 High acidity arises when nutrient intake (minerals and
vitamins) fail to meet the requirements for energy
production.
 Inability to neutralize toxins / acids
 Metabolic breakdown
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36
Impact of Acids on the Body
 Linoleic and linolenic acids are essential for health
 Arachidonic acid- human body uses it as staring material in
the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
 Gallic or tannic acid – found in black tea, coffee and wine.
Component of tannins which are used to make leather and
ink.
 Oxalic acid – found in many vegetables and fruits such as
cocoa and chocolate, spinach and rhubarb.
 Malic acid – found in fruits such as apples. Component of
TCA cycle.
 Tartaric acid – occurs in grapes
 Citric acid – lemons, oranges and other citrus fruit.
Component of TCA cycle.
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Acids
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Sulphuric acid
Lactic acid
Acetic acid
Uric acid
Keto acid
Salicylic acid
Phosphoric acid
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Hydrochloric acid
Nitric acid
Formic acid
Tannic acid
Oxalic acid
Carbonic acid
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Hydrochloric Acid (HCL)
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A naturally occurring acid in the body
Secreted by the stomach to assist with digestion
Impacted by stress and over-exertion
Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) is made in specialized
stomach cells and is broken down to sodium chloride, carbon
dioxide and water – HCL is the byproduct.
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Carbonic Acid (H2CO3)
 Weak acid
 A natural by-product and waste product of energy production
- glucose conversion (via enzymes) to carbonic acid – CO2 +
H2O
 Bad air, flat breathing, lack of exercise, as well as from overexertion and beverages containing carbonic acid
 Red blood cells contain carbonic anhydrase which both
increases the reaction rate and dissociates a hydrogen ion
from the carbonic acid, leaving bicarbonate. This reaction is
reversed in the lungs.
 Contributes to the acidification of the oceans.
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40
Lactic Acid
 Produced in muscle tissue as a result of the anaerobic
breakdown of glucose – i.e, exercise, stress
 Formed when milk turns sour
 Not used as a fuel by the body
 Disassociates into CO2 and hydrogen
 Causes pain, irregular pulse, arrhythmia
 Key is the production of lactic acid versus VO2 max threshold
 Management of lactic acid is key with sports trainers
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41
Uric Acid
 Both antioxidant and pro-oxidant depending on level; maybe
a marker for oxidative stress.
 Increased with stress and over-exertion
 Excessive consumption of proteins containing purine or
decrease in excretion of acids by the kidneys
 Released in hypoxic conditions
 Final oxidation product of purine metabolism
 Secreted in the urine
 Over ½ of antioxidant capacity of blood plasma comes from
uric acid
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42
Uric Acid
 High levels associated with gout and maybe kidney stones
 Excessive accumulation associated with cardiovascular
disease
 Putative role or uric acid with strokes
 Associated with higher risk of Type II diabetes, obesity,
dyslipidemia and hypertension
 Due to increase levels of fructose (and sucrose), sea salt and
high alcohol
 High ferritin and low copper results in higher urate levels;
high copper levels associated with decreased urate
 Low uric acid associated with MS and a deficiency of zinc
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43
Sulphuric Acid
 One of the most manufactured products in the chemical
industry
 One of the most important strongly acidic solvents
 Many acids and compounds (water, alcohol, ethers, ketones,
nitro compounds, carbonic acid, etc) act as a base in the
presence of sulphuric acid.
 Comes from pork and eggs
 Protein – amino acids – sulphuric acid -- kidneys
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44
Acetic Acid
Compound that gives the sourness to vinegar.
Produced by the bacterial oxidation of ethanol in wine.
Household vinegar – 5% acetic acid
Found in a number of cleaning agents along with citric acid
Consumption of sugar, white flour, sweets
Important in the metabolic processes of humans, animals and
plants.
 Acetyl group of acetic acid binds to Coenzyme A to produce
energy and CO2 (via TCA cycle and oxidative
phosphorylation).
 Some of the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is used to
synthesize fatty acids, terpenes, steroids, and other
molecules.
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45
Other Acids
 Ricinoleic acid – occurs in castor oil.
 Breaks down to undecylenic acid and n-heptaldehde.
 Zinc salt of undecylenic acid is used to treat fungal infections of the skin.
 Esters of this acid are used in perfumery.
 Sorbic acid –.
 Used as a preservative in many food products as well as in their
packaging materials.
 Inhibits the growth of molds and other fungi.
 Benzoic acid –.
 Sodium benzoate is used as a preservative in many food products
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46
Other Acids
 Butyric acid – component of cow’s milk
 Capryic (caproic and capric) acid – component of goat’s milk
 Lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids – present in the
fats and oils of animals and plants
 Keto-acids – acetone, processed fat and from incomplete fat
burning as in the case of diabetes.
 Tannic acid – black tea, coffee and wine
 Phosphoric acid – from soft drinks, energy drinks
 Nitric acid – from cured meats, artificial cheese products
 Acetylsalicylic acid – painkillers
 Many plastics are produced from acids
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Toxic Minerals
 Examples: mercury, lead, cadmium, aluminum, arsenic
 Some toxic minerals are nutritional at small dosages
 Disrupts mucous membranes and protective barriers
 Disrupts the absorption and function of nutritional minerals
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48
Chemicals in Personal Care
Products
 Over 10,500 chemicals in personal care products (PCP)
 EWG study in 2004: Of the 14,841 PCPs tested more than 1/3
contained at least one industrial chemical linked to cancer
and 79% contained harmful impurities that include known or
probable carcinogens, pesticides, reproductive toxins,
plasticizers and degreasers.
 Average consumer (including teens) uses 15 to 25 cosmetic
PCP a day, and is exposed to 200 chemicals.
 No government regulation of the words “organic” or
“natural”.
 Chemicals in PCP disrupt the protective barrier (skin) and
get absorbed into the blood system.
 PCPs should be as pure as the food we eat.
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49
Ortho vs Toxi-Molecular
Health Hunter - 1996
Nutrients
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Drugs
Essential to life
Feed biochemical pathways
Non-specific global effects
Synergistic interactions
Excess rarely toxic
Found in nature
Tested for millions of years
Work slowly, gently
Non-addictive
Less expensive
Non-patentable
Consumer oriented
Promotes health
Chronic care
No fatalities in 20 years
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Generally non-essential
Block or alter pathways
Organ-targeted
Adverse interactions
Excess commonly toxic
Found in the lab
Tested for millions of dollars
Work rapidly, forcefully
Can be addictive
More expensive
Patented
Doctor oriented
Treats disease
Acute care
9.6 million reactions per year
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50
Assessment
 Determine the degree to which the body can compensate.
 PCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide gas)
 Correlates with blood CO2 levels
 Indicator of concentration of acid in the body
 Concentration of base measured by plasma bicarbonate
 Effects of acidity are measured not so much by the overall pH
of the body, but by the general hardening & erosion within
the system.
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51
Measuring Electrolyte Status
 No test can accurately gauge pH
 Tissues residue determines sickness or health.
 In clinical medicine most measurements of electrolyte
concentration are of the ECF – blood serum
 Rise in serum potassium – maybe because of a large number
of cells are severely injured or die – spilling potassium ions –
which may affect heart function
 Primary metabolic acid-base disorders are determined by
measuring bicarbonate and serum electrolytes
 Pulse rate: faster pulse associated with more acidic
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52
Urine Readings Affected By:
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Body stores
Recent diet
Recent cleansings
Alkalizing steps
Health status
Hydration status
Activity level
Stress levels
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53
Steps to Increase Alkalinity
 Increase body’s stores of buffering minerals
 Food: 80:20 rule
 Mineral powders
 Alkalizing herbs
 Assist the excretion of acids
 Alkaline bath
 Alkaline tea
 Decrease the inputs and increase the excretion before
increasing mobilization of stored acids.
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54
Treatments to Increase Alkalinity
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Foods
Herbs
Colour therapy
Music therapy
Massage
Cranial-sacral therapy
Yoga
Exercise
Dr. Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND
www.naturopathicfoundations.ca
55
Naturopathic Medicine – Aspects of Manifestation
Dr. Iva Lloyd, BScH, RPE, ND
www.naturopathicfoundations.ca
56