Transcript mental retardation
Unit 12: Abnormal Psychology Psychological Disorder Presentations Mrs. Marsh mental retardation – a condition, present from childhood, characterized by significantly belowaverage general intellectual functioning (an IQ of 70 or below). Intellectual deficits Impaired social skills and judgment Difficulty communicating Inability to take care of oneself Common forms: Down Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) 1. Intellectual functioning significantly below average. IQs of about 70 or lower in person who can take an IQ test. Clinical judgment must be use on those who can not take an IQ test. 2. Impairments or deficits for that age group in functioning in at last two of the following areas: 3. Communication. Health. Leisure time. Safety. School. Self-care. Social. Taking care of a home. Work. The onset of impairment must be before the age of eighteen. Hereditary Causes Some forms of mental retardation involving amino acids, enzymes, and chromosomes are passed through the genes. Most common form is Down Syndrome. Caused by an extra twenty-first chromosome. Environmental Causes While in the womb Exposure to drugs or toxic chemicals Maternal malnutrition Maternal infections Problems during delivery Infections Anoxia (loss of oxygen) Injury to the brain Premature birth After birth Diseases Head injuries Exposure to toxic substances Neglect Most common form is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. A set of physical birth defects caused by a mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Approximately 1% of the population has mental retardation. More common in males. 1 in 1,000 live births results in FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). While there is no cure for mental retardation, providing a combination of behavioral and familybased intervention early in life can lead to improved development. Behavioral intervention Use of positive and negative reinforcement to improve motor, language, social, and cognitive skills. Family-based intervention Support for families to discuss issues. Prevention Focus of preventing the physical disorders that lead to mental retardation. Testing the baby immediately after delivery. Most genetic causes of mental retardation cannot be reversed. Improve conditions of prenatal development and childbirth. Most people with Down Syndrome live into their fifties, however… Health is usually poor. Nearly all develop brain changes resembling Alzheimer’s. Is it wrong to call someone or something “retarded”? Why or why not? What kind of stigma is attached to mental retardation?