Domain Kingdom - Cloudfront.net

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Transcript Domain Kingdom - Cloudfront.net

• Taxonomy: Branch of
biology that groups all life
according to their
characteristics and history
• All life on earth is placed
into 1 of 6 kingdoms:
– Eubacteria
– Archaea
– Protista
– Fungi
– Plantae
– Animalia
(we’ll look a bit more closely at each one
as time goes on)
•The 6 kingdoms are classified into domains.
- 3 domains:Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
• Domains are above the kingdom level.
– domain model more clearly shows prokaryotic diversity
• Developed classification
system based on physical
features
• Many rules still used today
– Binomial Nomenclature:
System of giving every organism
2 names
– 1st word: Genus (broad)
• Species in the same genus are
said to be closely related
– 2nd word: Species (specific,
never written alone)
• Example: House cat
– Genus: Felis (wild cats,
mountain cats, jungle cats,
domesticated cats, etc…)
– Species: catus
• When Writing:
– Genus capitalized
– species lowercase
– Underlined entirely
Ex: Homo sapiens
• When Typing:
– Same, except use
italics
Ex: Homo sapiens
• We focus on 7 of the 8
individual levels used to
classify organisms
Domain
Kingdom (largest)
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species (smallest)
• Allows relationships to be
clearly seen
Each level, or group
(taxon) , is included in
the level above it.
One way to
help you remember
the levels….
(Mnemonic Device)
Dominant
Kings
Play
Chess
On
Fine
Glass
Surfaces
Main Idea: The Linnaean classification system has
limitations.
• Linnaeus taxonomy doesn’t account for molecular
evidence.
– technology exist during Linneaus’ time
– Linnaean system based only on physical similarities.
– Does not account for convergent evolution.
• Physical similarities are not always
the result of close relationships.
• Modern taxonomy accounts for
genetics! (genetics is more
accurate!!!!!)
Ex: the red panda
• Similar traits often
indicates common
ancestry
• Phylogeny:
evolutionary histories
of a species
• Determined by
examining:
–
–
–
–
Fossils
Living specimens
Molecular data
Development
Fossil
Evidence
• Homologous structures: body parts that have a similar
structure, but different function
• Relationships identified among different species
• Fossils link past life to modern life
Anatomy shows nonrelationships also
• Comparing DNA, amino acids, chromosomes,
proteins
– Similarities and differences can be found
– Splits in evolution can be estimated
• DNA is a confirmation…the last word!
• Cladistics is a common method to make evolutionary
trees.
– based on common ancestry
– species placed in order that
they descended from common
ancestor
– Shown in tree branching
diagrams
• A clade is a group of species that share a common
ancestor.
• Derived characters are traits shared by clade members.
1 Tetrapoda clade
– more closely
related species
share more
derived characters
– represented as
“hash marks”
• Nodes represent
the most recent
common ancestor
of a clade.
CLADE
2 Amniota clade
3 Reptilia clade
4 Diapsida clade
5 Archosauria clade
FEATHERS &
TOOTHLESS
BEAKS.
SKULL OPENINGS IN
FRONT OF THE EYE &
IN THE JAW
OPENING IN THE SIDE OF
THE SKULL
SKULL OPENINGS BEHIND THE EYE
EMBRYO PROTECTED BY AMNIOTIC FLUID
NODE
FOUR LIMBS WITH DIGITS
DERIVED CHARACTER
• List 2 characteristics of a salamander. Where would a 3rd be located?
• From the diagram, which organism is most closely related to the
Chimp?
• 1) What does an amphibian & crocodile have in common?
Vertebrae, Bony skeleton, Four limbs
• 2) List the traits of a ray-finned fish.
Doesn’t have 4 limbs, has bony skeleton, has vertebrae