Renaissance - McKinney ISD Staff Sites

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Transcript Renaissance - McKinney ISD Staff Sites

Italian Renaissance
Contributions to the end of
Medieval Europe
• The Crusades
– Brought new goods from the East to Europe, stimulating a
rebirth in trade, weakened the Byzantine Empire
• Black Death
– Between 1347 to 1351, 1/3 of population died
– Labor shortage: ending of feudalism
• Hundred Years’ War
– 1337-1453
– War between England/France for claim to French throne
• Great Schism
– Split of the Catholic Church
– Weakened the Church’s authority
Begins in Italy
• French for “Rebirth”
• Growth in the arts and learning.
• Began in Italy around 1300 (Florence
became the center)
• 1. Thriving Cities
– Trade from Crusades created a large
merchant class
– Disease killed 60%-few survivorsdemanded high wages
• 2. Wealthy Merchant Class
– Italy-city states-run own city-state
– Merchants dominated politics
• 3. Classical Heritage
– Middle ages-no education
– Near Roman remains-Art
City States
• Milan
• northernmost – crossroads of main trade routes
• Visconti family controls until 1447
• Venice
• main link to Asian ports (international
power)
• controls salt trade
• 1st bank
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Florence
north-central area
de Medici family controls (1434)
Ruled through appearance of a government
Supported the arts of the time
Grandson
Richest
Lorenzo
De Medici
Cosimo
De Medici
Humanism
• Intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and
focused on human potential and achievements
•Focused on the secular and not the religious.
• related to concerns of the world .
•Made “the humanities” popular (history, literature, philosophy)
•Believed in enjoying the luxuries in life.
•Became patrons of the arts to demonstrate the importance of the arts
and themselves.
•Petrarch: “Father of Humanism” He was important in the recovery of
works by writers of ancient Rome and Greece
• Erasmus: concentrate on social problems and the reform of the
Church, expose the inappropriate behavior of people including the
clergy
Renaissance Art
•Changed from trying
to express a religious
idea to using a
realistic classic style.
•Revived old artistic
style of Classical
Realism, the use of
perspective, shadows,
more life like
•Artists were often
painters, sculptors,
poets, architects, and
inventors.
DaVinci
Leonardo da Vinci was
a “Renaissance man”
because of his
many talents and
interests.
He studied art, music,
architecture, math and
science.
Mona Lisa
1503-1506
Musee du Louvre, Paris
Last Supper
1494-1498
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Michelangelo
• Michelangelo was
a sculptor, painter
and architect.
• Among his famous
works are the
statue of David and
his mural on the
ceiling of the
Sistine Chapel in
the Vatican.
Pieta, 1498-1499, St. Peter’s Basilica,
Vatican City
Raphael
• Raphael's art came to
represent an ideal of
perfection, grace, and
harmonious balance.
• Raphael produced more
than 30 paintings of the
Madonna as well as
frescos including the
“School of Athens.”
School of Athens
1509-1511, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Who is in the School of Athens? Click on
link to find out
Architecture
Medieval
Notre Dame Cathedral
1163- 1345
Paris, France
Renaissance
Era
St. Maria Degli Angeli
Cathedral
1012-1434
Florence, Italy
Renaissance Ideas
•Expressed humanist ideas,
scientific knowledge,
realistic experiences, and
social conditions.
•Niccolo Machiavelli’s book
The Prince said
People are selfish, fickle
and corrupt.
It is better to be feared
than respected.
Political effectiveness
was more important than
morals
The end justifies the
means
Northern Renaissance
•Ideas were spread to
Northern Europe through
trade, travel, and print.
•The Renaissance inspired
social reform.
•Artists studied in Italy and
would bring the Renaissance
style back with them to
Europe.
Science and
Technology
• Nicolas Copernicus
1473-1453
– Earth orbited the sun
• Galileo Galilei 15641642
– Observations with
one of the first
telescopes
strengthened
Copernicus’ Theory
– Charges brought
against Galileo by the
Catholic Church
Printing Press
• Johann Gutenberg,
1450
• Effects of Printing Press
– 1. produce hundreds of
copies and circulate
– 2. books are now
cheaper
– 3. 1st book printed was
the Bible
– 4. Learning and literacy
rose significantly.
Elizabethan Age
• Renaissance in
England also known
as the Elizabethan
Age.
• Queen Elizabeth I
spoke 4 languages,
wrote poetry,
patronized writers and
artists.
• Created a strong,
centralized monarchy
based on national unty
and a sharing power
between monarchy &
Parliament