Renaissance - Persinski`s History Class

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Transcript Renaissance - Persinski`s History Class

Renaissance
Chapter 12
Meaning and Characteristics
• “rebirth” of antiquity in Italy between 1350 and 1550
(Greco-Roman civilization)
• Jacob Berckhardt, 1860 The Civilization of the
Renaissance in Italy-stated Italy was the birthplace of the
modern world with the revival of antiquity, the “perfecting
of the individual,” and secularism.
• Secular spirit arose in urban city-states due to the new
merchant wealth—centers of political, economic, and
social life.
• Age of recovery and rediscovery and attempts to
reconcile pagan philosophy with Christianity.
• Individualism-new social ideal
• Product of an elite movement (upper class)
Society
A. Economic Recovery
•
Expansion of trade-N. German Hanseatic League traded with the
Flanders Fleet of Venice in Bruges, Flanders
•
Industry-wool & textiles, luxuries such as silk and glassware,
printing, mining, metallurgy; new technology aided mining which
in turn will lead to new tech. in firearms
•
Banking and the Medici-Florence; Medici family expanded from
textiles into commerce, real estate, and banking. 15th c. the
Medici family had banks throughout Europe and had controlling
interests in several industries and even were the principal
bankers of the papacy. Poor leadership and bad loans led to their
decline toward the end of the 15th c.
B. Social Changes—society stays divided into 3 estates (1-clergy, 2nobility, 3-peasants)
1. Nobility—still made up between 2 and 3 percent of the population;
educated; declining income with land; new blood entering the
ranks
a. Castiglione “Book of the Courtier”; handbook for nobility;
“Renaissance man”-classical education, character, grace, achievements,
physically fit, follow a standard of conduct-serve prince
2. Peasants and Townspeople-decline of manorialism and serfdom
with a money economy; urban society-patricians (dominated urban
communities, burgher, property-less workers and unemployed (30-40%),
slaves (by end of 15th c. declined in Italy)
Italian States
5 Major States: Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papal
States, and Naples;
– Francesco Sforza conquered Milan in became the
new duke of Milan; created a highly centralized
territorial state with a successful tax system that
generated great wealth;
– Venice-commercial empire;
– Florence, dominated Tuscany and was governed by
the Medici family (despite being a Republic);
– Papal States-cities became independent during the
Babylonian Captivity and popes tried to reassert their
power;
– Naples-Southern Italy, backward, nobles dominated,
poverty-stricken peasants
Independent City-states—centers
of Renaissance culture
• Urbino-Duke Federigo da
Montefeltro-great patron
on the Renaissance;
Urbino became a cultural
and intellectual center
• Isabella d’Este (portrait by
Titian)-daughter of the
duke of Farrara and wife
of Francesco Gonzaga,
the Marquis of Mantua;
known for her intelligence,
she effectively ruled
Mantua; surrounded by
artists and intellectuals,
created one of the finest
libraries
Machiavelli
• Florence-1498; Secretary to
the Florentine Council of Ten;
sent into exile in 1512 with the
reestablishment of Medici
power and forced to give up
politics, he wrote his
reflections on political power in
The Prince and other writings.
• The Prince reveals his
preoccupation of political
problems and his concerns
with the maintenance and
expansion of power in order to
maintain stability.
Intellectual Renaissance
A. Humanism (humanities)-intellectual movement based on the
study of the classical literary works of Greece and Rome;
liberal arts—grammar, rhetoric, poetry, ethics, history-all based
on the writings of ancient Greeks and Romans
1. Petrarch-father of Renaissance humanism; 1st to
characterize the MA as a period of darkness; quest in
recovering Latin manuscripts; humanist emphasis on use of
pure classical Latin (Cicero-prose and Virgil-poetry);
a. Civic humanism-service to the state
b. Leonardo Bruni – Greek poets, dramatists,
historians, orators, etc.
c. Florentine Platonic Academy—translation of Plato’s
dialogues and philosophies by Marsilio Ficino (Neoplatonism);
synthesis of Christianity and Platonism; Platonic love
d. Hermeticism-(2 topics) occult sciences and
pantheism (divinity in all things); Giovanni Pico della
Mirandola-unlimited human potential
B. Education-human beings can be dramatically changed by education; developed
secondary schools
1. Vittorino de Feltre 1423 Mantua; Gian Francesco I Gonzaga wished to provide
a humanist education for his children. School based on the ideas of classical
authors; “liberal studies” key to freedom, enabling individuals to reach their full
potential (idea came from Pietro Paolo Vergerio’s treatise Concerning Character)
2. Humanist education was to produce complete citizens in preparation for life
who could participate in the civic community, not to create scholars; model for
educating the European ruling class until the 20th c.
C. History- new sense of chronology and periodization, secularized the writing of
history based on the analysis of documents, political events and forces, and the
conception of causation; Leonardo Bruni History of the Florentine People
1. 16th c. Francesco Guicciardini-beginning of “modern analytical historiography”
with History of Italy and History of Florence; works relied heavily on personal
examples and documentary sources
D. Printing: 1450, movable type, Gutenburg, Venice became a center of printing, by
1500-more than a thousand printers published almost 40,000 titles (1/2
religious); one of the largest industries in Europe
1. encouraged the development of scholarly research and desire for knowledge
2. facilitated cooperation among scholars and produced standardized texts
3. stimulated the development of an expanding lay reading public
4. Reformation
Artistic Renaissance
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•
Imitation of nature primary goal; search for naturalism, persuade
onlookers of the reality of the object/event, human beings became the
focus of attention
Early Renaissance
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Giotto (14th c. imitation of nature)
Masaccio-Florence; 1st masterpiece of Renaissance art with frescoes in
the Brancacci Chapel (monumental figures, realism, & perspective)
Uccello-mastered laws of perspective
Botticelli-Greek/Roman mythology
Donatello-David 1st known, life-size free-standing bronze since antiquity;
celebrated Florentine heroism over the Milanese in 1428
Brunelleschi-Duomo-new building techniques and machinery to create a
dome; Church of San Lorenzo-interior with classical columns, rounded
arches, and ceiling that would not overwhelm
portraiture
High Renaissance-1480-1520; increasing importance of Rome as the new cultural center
•
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da Vinci-transitional figure, realism and idealization
Raphael-frescoes at the Vatican, School of Athens-world of balance,
harmony, and order
Michelangelo-painter, sculptor, and architect; influenced by Neoplatonism;
divine beauty
Giotto-The Mourning of Christ
Adoration of the Magi
Masaccio - The Tribute Money, fresco in the Brancacci
Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
Holy Trinity, in full:
"Trinity with the Virgin,
Saint John the
Evangelist, and
Donors" (c. 1427) Fresco, Santa Maria
Novella, Florence
Uccello-The Princess and the
Dragon, 1470
Botticelli- Primavera: Venus, Greek goddess of love, is surrounded by
the goddesses of flower and fertility, banquets, dance and social
occasions. Above her is her son Cupid, the god of love. The entire
scene is based on Greek mythology but it is often interpreted as an
allegory for the Virgin Mary.
Venus and Mars, 1483
Donatello - David
Brunelleschi
Duomo of Florence,
Santa Maria del Fiore
Basilica di San Lorenzo
di Firenze, Florence
Da Vinci-The Last Supper- a 15th century mural painting in Milan, created for
his patron Duke Lodovico Sforza. It represents the scene of The Last Supper
from the final days of Jesus as depicted in the Bible. The painting is based on
John 13:21, where Jesus announced that one of his 12 disciples would betray
him. All twelve apostles have different reactions to the news, with various
degrees of anger and shock.
The Vitruvian Man-This
image, from a journal
called the Canon of
Proportions, provides the
perfect example of
Leonardo's keen interest
in proportion. In addition,
this picture represents a
cornerstone of
Leonardo's attempts to
relate man to nature. The
drawing itself is often
used as an implied
symbol of the essential
symmetry of the human
body. It is an example of
the blend of art and
science during the
Renaissance.
Mona Lisa - famous for her facial
expression and the subtlety of
the transitions of tone and
color. Leonardo used a
pyramid design to place the
woman simply and calmly in
the space of the painting. The
painting was one of the first
portraits to depict the sitter
before an imaginary
landscape. The painting has
been restored numerous times;
X-ray examinations have
shown that there are three
versions of the Mona Lisa
hidden under the present one.
Raphael-School of Athens,
1511-1512
Michelangelo
Sistine Chapel - is a chapel in the
Apostolic Palace, the official
residence of the Roman
Catholic Pope in the Vatican
City. The Sistine Chapel is
rectangular and measures
134.28 feet long by 44 feet
wide (the dimensions of the
Temple of Solomon, as given
in the Old Testament). It is
67.91 feet high and is roofed
by a flattened barrel vault, with
small side vaults over the 6
centered windows. The
pavement is in opus
alexandrinum, technique or a
method or a style of
connecting building elements,
following the studies on
Roman architecture .
The Last Judgement - painting by
Michelangelo located in the
Sistine Chapel, above the
altar. The work is massive and
spans the entire wall behind
the altar of the Sistine Chapel.
It was executed from 1535 to
1541 and is a depiction of the
second coming of Christ and
the apocalypse. The souls of
humans rise and descend to
their fates, as judged by Christ
and his Saintly entourage.
Creation of Adam
St. Peter’s Basilica: ranks
second among the four major
basilicas of Rome. It is the
most prominent building inside
the Vatican City.
Michelangelo's dome is also
the dominant feature of the
Roman skyline. Possibly the
largest church in Christianity
(see Yamoussoukro), it covers
an area of 5.7 acres (23,000
m²) and has a capacity of over
60,000 people.
Pietà
an artwork depicting the
Virgin Mary cradling the
dead body of Christ. As
such, it is a particular
form of the devotional
theme of Our Lady of
Sorrows. It is currently
located in the Vatican.
The statue was made for
French cardinal Jean de
Billheres’ funeral
monument.
Northern Renaissance
– More emphasis on illuminated manuscripts
and wooden panel painting for altarpieces;
masters at rendering details; Flanders; 1st to
use oil paint
– Van Eyck-observation of visual reality,
accurate portrayal of details; emotional
intensity of religious feeling and created
great works of devotional art
– Durer-influenced by the Italians, integrate
details with a standard of ideal beauty
Van EyckGiovanni
Arnolfini and
his Bride, 1434
Ghent altarpiece, 1432
La Madone au Chanoine Van der
Paele, 1434
Durer
Self portrait, 1471
Lamentation of Christ, 1500-1503
European States-”new monarchies”
of western Europe
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–
France-monarchy used nationalist feelings created during the
Hundred Years’ War over hatred of a common enemy; Charles
VII-royal army and the ability to levy the taille (direct tax on
property with no need for Estates-General approval); King
Louis XI retained the taille and acquired Burgundy and other
provinces
England-Tudor dynasty established by Henry VII at the end of
the War of the Roses when the last Yorkist King was defeated
(Richard III). Gained support of middle class by not levying
taxes on them, didn’t call Parliament b/c stayed out of wars,
ended noble wars through ending “livery and maintenance”
(private armies), established the Court of the Star Chamber
(no juries and torture allowed).
– Spain-Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of
Castille; union of rulers-both maintained their
own parliaments, courts, laws, coinage,
speech, customs, and political organs; worked
to strengthen royal control; removed
aristocrats from the royal council and replaced
with middle class lawyers; royal army;
secured to right to elect church officials from
the pope; religious uniformity (Inquisition)
– Holy Roman Empire-no strong monarchical
authority; HRE Hapsburg dynasty (Austria
landholdings); influence through marriage—
Charles will be heir to Hapsburg, Spanish,
and Burgundian lines.
Saint Dominic presiding over
an Auto de fé, as depicted by
Pedro Berruguete 1495
Church
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Heresy and Reform
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Wyclif-followers called Lollards; alleged no basis in Scripture for
papal claims of temporal authority; Bible should be sole authority
and in vernacular; condemned all practices not in Scripture
Hus-Lollard ideas spread to Bohemia where John Hus urged the
elimination of worldliness of the clergy and Church; he was
arrested at the Council of Constance, condemned as a heretic,
and burned at the stake. This led to revolutionary upheaval.
Reform-Council of Constance attempted reform but it was
unsuccessful. (Sacrosancta and Frequens). Popes worked to
defeat the conciliar movement. Execrabilis – Pope Pius II
condemned appeals to the council over the head of the pope as
heretical.
Papacy-further decline; from the end of the Great Schism
(1417) to the beginnings of the Reformation—interest in Papal
States and Italian politics. Julius II “warrior pope” led armies
against his enemies. Nepotism-Pope Sixtus IV made 5
nephews cardinals; patrons of the Renaissance—Julius II
began construction on Saint Peter’s Basilica.