Review for Thurs, May 28th Exam on the Renaissance

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Transcript Review for Thurs, May 28th Exam on the Renaissance

Review for Thurs, May 28th
Exam on the Renaissance
Intro-the Renaissance
 What are the differences between the
Medieval times and the Renaissance?
Medieval Art expressed values of the church
or warfare. “After life”
Scholars returned to the classical documents
before the fall of Rome.
“Here and Now”
What was the Renaissance?
The rebirth of art and learning.
The rediscovery of Greek and Roman
heritage.
What was the Medici family known
for?
In 1434, Cosimo de’ Medici won control of
Florence’s government. Medici was one of
several members of a powerful family that
ruled as dictators and were patrons of the
arts.
Why did the Renaissance start in Italy?
Thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, and
access to the Greek and Rome heritage.
Merchants were interested in the arts.
How did humanism influence the
growth of learning?
The focus was on human potential and
achievements. Humanists studied Ancient
texts to understand Greek values. They
influenced artists and popularized classical
education. (History, literature, and
philosophy)
How did ideas about piety-religious
devotion- and a simple life change?
The spirit of society was more secular. The
worldly concern of “here and now”
emphasized the secular life rather than
ecclesiastical. People do not have to worry
about offending god.
Renaissance Artists and Writing
What effects did the emphasis on individuals
have on painters and sculptors?
Educated members were supposed to create
art. Artists and sculptors were influenced by
classical art. They portrayed the importance
of individuals and realism.
How did Michelangelo, Leonardo, and Raphael
transform art or sculpture?
Michelangelo’s David and the Sistine Chapel
-realism
Leonardo’s Last Supper and Mona Lisa
-Tremendous emotion and geometric features.
Raphael’s the School of Athens and the wedding
of the virgin --the influence of Greek thought
and perspective
How did the writings of Petrarch, Machiavelli, and
Erasmus demonstrate the values of humanism?
Petrarch was an early humanist poet.
Machiavelli wrote The Prince. His advice urged
leaders to be ruthless to protect the state over
individuals.
Erasmus was Dutch who wrote in the vernacular. His
writings criticized the Church.
What factors led to the beginning of the
Renaissance in northern Europe?
The end of the plague.
The city of Flanders-Netherlands and Belgium
area became more prosperous in 1400’s.
Scholars interested in the common people, the
vernacular, and realistic themes.
EX: Durer, Van Eyck, and Erasmus
How did the invention of the printing press
help spread learning and Renaissance ideas?
Gutenberg brought many changes.
3,000 books to 15 million in Europe over 60
years.
Cheaper to produce and more literate pop.
Protestant Reformation
Why was Martin Luther upset with the
Catholic Church?
The sales of indulgences, simony, and the
power of the pope.
How did Luther’s 95 theses lead to a religious
revolution in Europe?
Once the complaints started spreading and
Luther refused to back down, change was
upon Europe. The Pope excommunicated
him. However, Luther’s beliefs became
more available to the middle class.
What were the important beliefs
of Lutheranism?
By faith alone
Against five of seven Catholic sacraments
Against the Pope
What were the most important beliefs that
John Calvin of Geneva put forth with
Calvinism?
Predestination
Good works
Structured community life
What was the result of Henry VIII challenging
the Church of England?
Created the Anglican church with several
different sects
The King or Queen was in charge.
Catholic/Counter Reformation
What took place at the Council of Trent?
This was led by the Popes, Cardinals, and
other high level Catholics.
It was a response to the Protestants.
What did the Catholics do to counter the
Protestants? What did the Catholics do to
reform their church?
Counter: Faith alone is wrong, Protestantism
that went against was dangerous. Inquisition
and charges of witch craft
Reform: Change--qualified priests
Jesuit placed emphasis on spreading religion
and education
Stronger penalties
Legacy
More power to the monarchs
Religious war
Science
How did Copernicus’s heliocentric theory
differ from Ptolemy’s theory?
Sun was the center of the universe
What did Johannes Kepler prove?
Elliptical rotations rather than circular
How did Galileo revolutionize science?
Proved Copernicus theory
Used telescope and learned about the moon
and planets
Studied gravity and motion
Encounter and Exploration
What were the causes of exploration?
-technology
-monarchs- $
-humanism
-gold, god, glory
What new technologies made this possible?
Astrolabe
Compass
Sextant
Caravel--Triangular
How did Prince Henry and Portugal help
shape exploration?
Henry of Navarre set up a navigation school.
Portugal took on voyages to Africa and Asia.
De Gama set up trading posts in India.
Empire --Brazil
What impact did Columbus, Magellan,
Cortez, and Pizarro have?
Columbus- voyages left hundreds of
thousands dead. “New World” that started
the Columbian exchange of products.
Magellan-goal was to circumnavigate, ended
up in the Philippines
Cortez-Conquistidore from Spain who took
over the Aztec empire in Mexico.
Pizarro-took over the Inca empire in Peru.