A macromolecule

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Transcript A macromolecule

What are cells made
of?
What are
macromolecules?
• Macro= big
• Macro+molecule=
Big molecule
Macromolecules are essential molecules.
*ESSENTIAL- adjective:
absolutely necessary;
extremely important
THINK!
Organic….?
• What does this mean?
They contain Carbon
What do macromolecules look like?
• Made up of smaller “building blocks”
called monomers (mono=one)
• Kind of like bricks making a wall
• Kind of like beads on a chain
Macromolecules look more like this
Four Major Macromolecules:
1. Lipids
2. Carbohydrates
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic acid ( DNA & RNA)
Each of the four type are essential for
survival of living things
What does that mean???
Food Labels Activity
Macromolecule
What is it made How do we get What is it used
of? What are
it?
for?
its building
blocks?
Examples of
how it is used
in body
enzymes- speed up
rxns
hormones- send
messages thru body
structural- hair,
nails, skin
Amylase,
insulin, hair,
nails, every part
of your cells!
Proteins
Amino acid
Meat, dairy,
bean products
that you eat
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide
s (glucose &
other simple
sugars)
Simple carbsShort term
fruit
energy
Complex carbs- use/storage
pasta
Polysaccharide
- Glycogen
Starch
Cellulose
Lipids
Fatty acids
and glycerol
Unsaturated fatsliquid @ room temp
(oil)
Saturated fats- solid
@ room temp (steak
fat)
Long term
energy storage
Cholesterol,
adipose tissue
Nucleic Acids
nucleotides
Eating any
plant or animal
that has DNA in
it.
Storing genetic
information &
Protein
synthesis
DNA, RNA
1. Lipids
fats, oils, and waxes
Why do we need fat?
Function: stores energy, insulation
(padding), and protection
A lipid is a fat if it is solid at
room temperature and an
oil if it is a liquid at room
temperature
Lipids
Diverse group of organic compounds that
are
insoluble in water
Includes animal fats,
plant oils, steroids,
phospholipids
Made of fatty acids
and glycerol
Fat
•
•
•
•
Saturated
All single bonds
Solid at room temp
Animal fats
•
•
•
•
Unsaturated
One or more double bonds
between carbons
Liquid at room temp
“Vegetable” or plant oils
Useful functions of fat
• Energy storage
• More compact fuel reserve than carbo.
• Cushions vital organs in mammals
• Insulates against heat loss
Phospholipids
• Component of cell membranes (bilayer)
• 2 fatty acids & phosphate group
• Amphipathic behavior in water
Steroids
• Lipids w/ 4 fused carbon rings and
various functional groups
• Cholesterol important as precurser to
other steroids; and enhance membrane
fluidity
2. Carbohydrate
Definition: Sugar molecules (glucose)
• Glucose: the source of most of the
cell’s energy
Examples: sugars, starches, and cellulose
The word “Saccharide” means “sugar”
What is this?
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Carbohydrates
(sugars)
• Classified based on # of simple sugars
• C H O in 1:2:1 ratio
• Major nutrients for cells; ie glucose
• Produced by photosynthetic organisms
• Store energy in chemical bonds
• C skeletons raw materials for other
organic compounds
Carbohydratesdisaccharides
Disacch.
Monomers
Maltose
glu + glu
Lactose
galac
glu +
Sucrose
glu + fru
Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides
• 2 Important biological functions:
• Energy storage (starch, glycogen)
• Structural support (cellulose,
chitin)
Storage Polysaccharides
• Starch = glucose polymer, for energy
storage in plants
• Helical glucose polymer
• Most animals have
enzymes to digest it
• Major sources in human
diet are potatos
and grains.
Storage Polysaccharides
• Glycogen = glucose polymer, for energy
storage in animals
• Branched molec.
• Stored in muscle
and liver of humans
and other vertebrates
Structural Polysaccharides
• Cellulose = linear unbranched polymer
• Major structural component of plant cell
walls
• Differs from starch in its monomer linkage
• Cannot be digested by most organisms
Structural Polysaccharides
• Chitin = structural polysacch.;
a
polymer of an amino sugar (nature’s
plastic)
• Forms exoskeleton of Arthropods
• Found as cell walls in fungi
3. Proteins
Definition: A macromolecule (organic-carbon
compound) made of amino acids
Protein
Function: provide structural support, to transport
substances, and speed-up reactions
Proteins
• Complex polymers of amino acids
• Abundant: make up 50% or more of dry
wt
• Varied functions in cell:
structure (collagen, actin & myosin),
metabolism (enzymes),
transport (membrane proteins),
signaling (hormones),
movement, defense (antibodies)
Amino Acid Structure
4. Nucleic Acids
Definition: DNA and RNA
Nucleic
Acid
Function: store and communicate genetic
information
Nucleic Acids
•
•
•
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
(DNA)
Can replicate itself and be
passed from one
generation of cells to the
next
Genes are segments of
DNA that code for protein
•
•
•
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Functions as mediator
between genotype and
phenotype
3 functional forms carry
out “protein synthesis”
Nucleic Acids
DNA, the Genetic Code
RNA the Trait Maker
Nucleotides:
monomers of nucleic acids
• Pentose, a 5C
sugar
• Nitrogen Base
• Phosphate
Macromolecule
What is it made How do we get What is it used
of? What are
it?
for?
its building
blocks?
Examples of
how it is used
in body
enzymes- speed up
rxns
hormones- send
messages thru body
structural- hair,
nails, skin
Amylase,
insulin, hair,
nails, every part
of your cells!
Proteins
Amino acid
Meat, dairy,
bean products
that you eat
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide
s (glucose &
other simple
sugars)
Simple carbsShort term
fruit
energy
Complex carbs- use/storage
pasta
Polysaccharide
- Glycogen
Starch
Cellulose
Lipids
Fatty acids
and glycerol
Unsaturated fatsliquid @ room temp
(oil)
Saturated fats- solid
@ room temp (steak
fat)
Long term
energy storage
Cholesterol,
adipose tissue
Nucleic Acids
nucleotides
Eating any
plant or animal
that has DNA in
it.
Storing genetic
information &
Protein
synthesis
DNA, RNA
4 Major
Macromolecules
Review –
concept map of
macromolecules