Transcript Prentice Hall Biology
KREBS CYCLE & ELECTRON TRANSPORT Chapter 9-2 http://www.therunningdoctor.com/runinjuries.htm http://www.clickatutor.com/mitochondria.jpg REMEMBER: The “fork in the road” happens following glycolysis. The presence or absence of _______________ decides which path it takes next. Flowchart Section 9-2 Cellular Respiration Glucose (C6H1206) + Oxygen (02) Glycolysis We will next focus on the Krebs Cycle. This is the path that is taken when oxygen is present. Image from BIOLOGY Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing _______________ follows glycolysis if oxygen is present REMEMBER: Glycolysis happens in the ________________ outside the mitochondria. Krebs cycle happens in _____________ inside the mitochondria _______________ (also called pyruvate) enters the _________________ Pyruvic acid joins with _______________ to form ________________ Diagram by Riedell WHERE DO THESE GO? Carbon dioxide is released into the ________________ High energy electron carriers move into the ____________________ (We will come back to this later) Citric Acid Formation: Krebs Cycle Animation-(select #2) 2 carbon ACETYL-COA combines with a 4 carbon molecule to form a 6-carbon molecule called _______________ . WHERE DO THESE GO? Coenzyme A goes back to pick up another ________________ Citric acid completes the ____________ KREBS CYCLE Krebs Cycle Animation-(select #3) KREBS CYCLE PRODUCES ____ ____ ____ ____ WHERE DOES IT GO? → 6 carbons in original glucose are lost as ________________ to atmosphere WHERE DO THESE GO? ATP can be used directly to supply __________ for the cell. High energy electron carriers move into the ____________________ Flowchart Section 9-2 Cellular Respiration Glucose (C6H1206) + Oxygen (02) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle We will next focus on the the Electron Transport Chain WHERE DOES IT HAPPEN? Enzymes for ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN are located in the ___________________________ ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN INTERMEMBRANE SPACE CRISTAE MATRIX Image from: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006 Electron Transport Chain: Electron Transport Chain Animation(select start, continue, and #1) High-energy _____________ from __________ and __________ are passed along the electron transport chain. Energy from passing electrons is used to transport _____________________ across the membrane. Electron Transport Chain: Electron Transport Chain Animation(select start, continue, and #3) The pumping of H+ ions into the _______________________ represents potential energy that is harnessed to make ATP. As H+ ions escape through ion channels back into the matrix, ________________ spins and adds a phosphate to ADP to form _______ Electron Transport Chain: ________________ serves as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain. At the end of the electron transport chain, an enzyme combines the electrons with the hydrogen ions and oxygen to form ______________ Electron Transport Chain Animation-(#1 and #2) High-energy electrons from ________ come in at beginning but electrons from _________ come in farther down the chain. SO: → FADH2 → NADH _____ _____ Figure 9–2 Cellular Respiration: An Overview WHATS THE BIG PICTURE? Electrons carried in NADH Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Pyruvic acid Glucose Cytoplasm Glycolysis Electron Transport Chain Krebs Cycle Mitochondrion CELLULAR RESPIRATION includes: ______________________ ______________________ _______________________ GLYCOLYSIS Happens in ______________ Breaks down ____________ into ________________ Produces _______ __________ KREBS CYCLE happens in ________________ Breaks down _________________ Produces: ____ ____ ____ ____ ELECTRON TRANSPORT Enzymes found in _____________ Uses high energy electrons and H+ ions donated by _______ and _______ Makes ___________ ________ acts a final electron acceptor to produce ________ Image from BIOLOGY Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing CELLULAR RESPIRATION (aerobic/ with oxygen): 1 glucose → _______________ FERMENTATION (anaerobic/ without oxygen): 1 glucose → ________________ Remember ! CARBOHYDRATES SUPPLY ENERGY Cells burn GLUCOSE for their energy needs Images from: http://www.miranda.com/library.en/Images/Pictures/girls-runners.jpg http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html http://www.therunningdoctor.com/runinjuries.htm EXERCISE and ENERGY (Short term energy) Cells normally contain _________ amounts of ATP produced by _______________ & __________________________ (only enough for a few seconds of activity) Once this ATP is used up_____________ fermentation can provide enough ATP to last about ___________________. EXERCISE and ENERGY (Short term energy) Once race is over, _______________ must be broken down using oxygen. Well __________ athletes burn lactic acid more efficiently. Image from: http://www.miranda.com/library.en/Images/Pictures/girls-runners.jpg EXERCISE and ENERGY (LONGER term energy) For exercise longer than 90 seconds _____________________ is the only way to make enough ATP. Cellular respiration releases energy _____________ than fermentation. Well conditioned athletes must pace themselves during a long race. What happens in a long race when the body’s glucose all is used up? REMEMBER Animal cells store GLUCOSE as _____________ to use later. Image from: http://www.msu.edu/course/lbs/145/smith/s02/graphics/campbell_5.6.gif EXERCISE and ENERGY (LONGER term energy) ________________ store glucose as ________________ which can be broken down into glucose to supply energy for_______________ of activity. EXERCISE and ENERGY (LONGER term energy) After glycogen stores are used up the body begins to break down ________ That’s why aerobic exercise must continue for longer than 20 minutes if you want to lose weight! Image from: http://blackmovie.us/movie/Fat.Albert/fat.albert.movie.jpg ALL CELLS NEED ENERGY All __________________ (including plant and animal cells) have _______________ for cellular respiration All __________________ (bacteria) have their electron transport enzymes attached to their _____________________ Remember: No membrane bound organelles!