Energy & Enzymes Chapter 2-4

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Transcript Energy & Enzymes Chapter 2-4

Mrs. Kooiman
La Serna High School
Forms of Energy
A.

Mechanical, Light and Chemical Energy
Energy can be absorbed or released by a
chemical reaction
B.
Chemical bonds break between atoms and new
bonds are formed, producing different
substances.
ii. Chemical Equations
CO2 + H2O
H2C2CO3
i.
Reactants
Products
Energy is needed to start a chemical
reaction.
C.
i.
Examples: Match starts a campfire,
Sparkplug starts an engine
i.
The energy needed to start a chemical reaction
is referred to as Activation
Energy .
No Enzyme
Enzyme
Substances that increase the
speed of chemical reactions and
decrease (lower) activation energy.
(In Living Organisms)
Called a CATALYST when found
outside of living organisms!!
A.
Structure
i. Tertiary (3rd) Level PROTEINS (made up of amino acid
chains)
Importance
i. Help maintain HOMEOSTASIS (balance)
ii. Without enzymes reactions wouldn’t occur quickly
enough to sustain life.
C. Naming Enzymes
i. End with the suffix –ase
ii. Example – lactase – enzyme that breaks down lactose
sugars
B.
D.
i.
Factors that affect
enzyme activity
Certain chemical
conditions can cause
the amino acid chain
(protein) to
permanently change
shape or become
DENATURED.
The Factors that affect enzyme activity include:
Temperature (Increase or Decrease)
2. pH (acids and basis)
3. Ionic Conditions (positive or negative charges)
1.
4. Substrate Concentration
**A change in ANY of these can lead to a
decrease in enzyme activity, and can
DENATURE the protein**
i.
Enzyme-Substrate Complex
The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed
reactions are known as the
substrate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Enzyme binds to a specific substrate
Enzyme and substrate interact at the active site.
Reaction is complete when products are formed.
Enzyme is free to start process again.
Your body turn enzymes “on” and “off” at specific
times.
Step 3
Step 1
Step 2
Step 4