Transcript organic compounds
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids CARBOHYDRATES Made up of the elements: • CARBON • HYDROGEN • OXYGEN Carbohydrate Contains Carbon Same ratio of Hydrogen:Oxygen as H2O, 2:1 Simple Sugars-monomers • MONOSACCHARIDES • C6H12O6 • 3 Monosaccharides: • Glucose • Fructose • Galactose MONOSACCHARIDES *You need to be able to draw glucose Double Sugars-polymers • DISACCHARIDES • C12H22O11 • 3 Disaccharides: • Sucrose • Lactose • Maltose SUCROSE • Common table sugar • Made by combining glucose & fructose LACTOSE • Major sugar in milk • Made by combining glucose & galactose MALTOSE • Product of starch digestion • Made by combining glucose & glucose How are disaccharides made? • Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation Reaction) —2 monomers combine & you get a polymer + water. • Hydrolysis —break-up of polymer to get monomers… just add water. (reverse of above) DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS HYDROLYSIS Complex Sugars-polymers • POLYSACCHARIDES • Many sugars…long chains • 3 Polysaccharides: • Starch • Cellulose • Glycogen STARCH • Plants store it as food (energy) CELLULOSE • Plant fiber GLYCOGEN Animals store it as food energy in liver and muscles Carbohydrate Function • Used by cells to store and release energy Carbohydrate Examples LIPIDS Made up of the elements: • CARBON • HYDROGEN • OXYGEN MONOMERS • 1 Glycerol • 3 Fatty Acids POLYMERS • COMMON NAMES • Fats • Oils • Waxes • Steroids (Cholesterol) LIPID VARIATIONS • Saturated – all single bonds (the fatty acids contain the maximum possible number of H atoms) • Unsaturated – 1 double bond (more H atoms can bond) • Polyunsaturated – multiple double bonds FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS • Used to store energy • Biological membranes & waterproof coverings • Hormones (chemical messengers, regulators) EXAMPLES OF LIPIDS NUCLEIC ACIDS Made up of the elements: • CARBON • HYDROGEN • OXYGEN • NITROGEN • PHOSPHORUS MONOMERS • Nucleotides • Sugar • Phosphate • Base POLYMERS • Deoxyribonucleic Acid • DNA • Ribonucleic Acid • RNA FUNCTIONS • Genetic Code PROTEINS Made up of the elements: • CARBON • HYDROGEN • OXYGEN • NITROGEN Protein Facts • Protein = Greek for primary or first • Most diverse and complex macromolecule • Makes up about 50% of our body weight • Each has a unique structure and function MONOMERS • Amino Acids • There are 20 amino acids. • If you change the order they are arranged in, you produce different proteins with different functions. POLYMERS • Polypeptides • Many amino acids bonded together Polypeptide Amino Acids Parts of an Amino Acid • • • • • Central Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Amino Group (NH2) Carboxyl Group (COOH) Side Group (R) • Different for every amino acid 20 Types of Amino Acids Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation Reaction) • How amino acids are put together into a polypeptide (a) Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation Reaction) Hydrolysis Reaction • How polypeptides are broken down into amino acids Protein Functions 1. Structure • Give support and shape • Collagen and Elastin – skin, cartilage, tendons and ligaments • Keratin – hair, horns, feathers, nails Protein Functions 2. Transport 2. Move other molecules • Hemoglobin and Myoglobin – transport oxygen Protein Functions 3. Motion • Allow movement • Actin and Myosin – contract muscles Protein Functions 4. Defense 4. Protect against disease • Antibodies – fight off foreign bacteria Protein Functions 5. Storage 5. Store nutrients • Ovalbumin – protein in egg whites • Caesin – protein in milk Protein Functions 6. Signal (hormones) • Regulate body functions • Insulin and Glucagon – regulate blood glucose levels Protein Functions 7. Enzymes • Proteins that speed up chemical reactions • Amylase – breaks down starch (polysaccharide) • Lipases – breaks down fats (lipids) • Protease – breaks down proteins Enzymes • Proteins that act as catalysts in chemical reactions • Catalyst – helps speed up a chemical reaction • Without enzymes chemical reaction would not occur fast enough to sustain life. Enzyme Terminology • Substrate – molecule that is going to chemically react; what an enzyme will work on. • Active Site – specific shape on an enzyme that binds a specific substrate • Product – what is made after the reaction How Enzymes Work ENZYMES ARE REUSABLE! They can work over and over to catalyze reactions. How Enzymes Work ENZYMES ARE SPECIFIC! Each enzyme has an active site that fits perfectly with its substrate. How Enzymes Work ENZYMES CAN DENATURE (CHANGE SHAPE) IN HARSH CONDITIONS! Each enzyme has an optimal pH and temperature. How Enzymes Work ENZYMES CATALYZE REACTIONS! Enzymes lower the amount of energy needed to get a reaction started (activation energy). Activation Energy • The energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur • High when no enzyme is present • Low when an enzyme speeds up the reaction Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity •pH •Temperature •Concentration CALORIES • The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 o ml of water by 1 C • Measurement of energy content in food CALORIES 1g of fat = 9 calories • 1g of carb/protein = 4 calories • Needs determined by: • Sex, age, body mass, physical activity What happens if you eat more • calories than your body burns?