organic compounds

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Transcript organic compounds

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
CARBOHYDRATES
Made up of the elements:
• CARBON
• HYDROGEN
• OXYGEN
Carbohydrate
Contains
Carbon
Same ratio of Hydrogen:Oxygen
as H2O, 2:1
Simple Sugars-monomers
• MONOSACCHARIDES
• C6H12O6
• 3 Monosaccharides:
• Glucose
• Fructose
• Galactose
MONOSACCHARIDES
*You need to be able to draw glucose
Double Sugars-polymers
• DISACCHARIDES
• C12H22O11
• 3 Disaccharides:
• Sucrose
• Lactose
• Maltose
SUCROSE
• Common table sugar
• Made by combining glucose &
fructose
LACTOSE
• Major sugar
in milk
• Made by
combining
glucose &
galactose
MALTOSE
• Product of starch digestion
• Made by combining glucose &
glucose
How are disaccharides made?
• Dehydration Synthesis
(Condensation Reaction)
—2 monomers combine
& you get a polymer +
water.
• Hydrolysis —break-up
of polymer to get
monomers… just add
water. (reverse of
above)
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
HYDROLYSIS
Complex Sugars-polymers
• POLYSACCHARIDES
• Many sugars…long chains
• 3 Polysaccharides:
• Starch
• Cellulose
• Glycogen
STARCH
• Plants store it as food
(energy)
CELLULOSE
• Plant fiber
GLYCOGEN
Animals store
it as food
energy in
liver and
muscles
Carbohydrate Function
• Used by cells to store and
release energy
Carbohydrate Examples
LIPIDS
Made up of the elements:
• CARBON
• HYDROGEN
• OXYGEN
MONOMERS
• 1 Glycerol
• 3 Fatty Acids
POLYMERS
• COMMON NAMES
• Fats
• Oils
• Waxes
• Steroids (Cholesterol)
LIPID VARIATIONS
• Saturated – all single bonds (the fatty
acids contain the maximum possible
number of H atoms)
• Unsaturated – 1 double bond (more
H atoms can bond)
• Polyunsaturated – multiple double
bonds
FUNCTIONS OF LIPIDS
• Used to store energy
• Biological membranes &
waterproof coverings
• Hormones (chemical
messengers, regulators)
EXAMPLES OF LIPIDS
NUCLEIC ACIDS
Made up of the elements:
• CARBON
• HYDROGEN
• OXYGEN
• NITROGEN
• PHOSPHORUS
MONOMERS
• Nucleotides
• Sugar
• Phosphate
• Base
POLYMERS
• Deoxyribonucleic Acid
• DNA
• Ribonucleic Acid
• RNA
FUNCTIONS
• Genetic Code
PROTEINS
Made up of the elements:
• CARBON
• HYDROGEN
• OXYGEN
• NITROGEN
Protein Facts
• Protein = Greek for primary or first
• Most diverse and complex
macromolecule
• Makes up about 50% of our body
weight
• Each has a unique structure and
function
MONOMERS
• Amino Acids
• There are 20 amino acids.
• If you change the order they
are arranged in, you produce
different proteins with
different functions.
POLYMERS
• Polypeptides
• Many amino acids bonded
together
Polypeptide
Amino Acids
Parts of an Amino Acid
•
•
•
•
•
Central Carbon (C)
Hydrogen (H)
Amino Group (NH2)
Carboxyl Group (COOH)
Side Group (R)
• Different for every amino acid
20 Types of Amino Acids
Dehydration Synthesis
(Condensation Reaction)
• How amino acids are put
together into a polypeptide
(a) Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation Reaction)
Hydrolysis Reaction
• How polypeptides are broken
down into amino acids
Protein Functions
1. Structure
• Give support and shape
• Collagen and Elastin – skin,
cartilage, tendons and ligaments
• Keratin – hair, horns, feathers,
nails
Protein Functions
2. Transport
2. Move other molecules
• Hemoglobin and Myoglobin –
transport oxygen
Protein Functions
3. Motion
• Allow movement
• Actin and Myosin – contract
muscles
Protein Functions
4. Defense
4. Protect against disease
• Antibodies – fight off foreign
bacteria
Protein Functions
5. Storage
5. Store nutrients
• Ovalbumin –
protein in egg
whites
• Caesin –
protein in milk
Protein Functions
6. Signal (hormones)
• Regulate body functions
• Insulin and Glucagon –
regulate blood glucose levels
Protein Functions
7. Enzymes
• Proteins that speed up chemical
reactions
• Amylase – breaks down starch
(polysaccharide)
• Lipases – breaks down fats (lipids)
• Protease – breaks down proteins
Enzymes
• Proteins that act as catalysts in
chemical reactions
• Catalyst – helps speed up a
chemical reaction
• Without enzymes chemical
reaction would not occur fast
enough to sustain life.
Enzyme Terminology
• Substrate – molecule that is
going to chemically react; what
an enzyme will work on.
• Active Site – specific shape on
an enzyme that binds a specific
substrate
• Product – what is made after
the reaction
How Enzymes Work
ENZYMES ARE REUSABLE!
They can work over and over to
catalyze reactions.
How Enzymes Work
ENZYMES ARE SPECIFIC!
Each enzyme has an active site
that fits perfectly with its
substrate.
How Enzymes Work
ENZYMES CAN DENATURE
(CHANGE SHAPE) IN
HARSH CONDITIONS!
Each enzyme has an optimal
pH and temperature.
How Enzymes Work
ENZYMES CATALYZE
REACTIONS!
Enzymes lower the amount of
energy needed to get a
reaction started (activation
energy).
Activation Energy
• The energy needed for a
chemical reaction to occur
• High when no enzyme is present
• Low when an enzyme speeds up
the reaction
Factors Affecting
Enzyme Activity
•pH
•Temperature
•Concentration
CALORIES
• The amount of heat needed
to raise the temperature of 1
o
ml of water by 1 C
• Measurement of energy content in food
CALORIES
1g
of
fat
=
9
calories
•
1g
of
carb/protein
=
4
calories
•
Needs
determined
by:
•
Sex, age, body mass, physical
activity
What
happens
if
you
eat
more
•
calories than your body burns?