4 TYPES OF LIPIDS Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Waxes, Steroids

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Transcript 4 TYPES OF LIPIDS Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Waxes, Steroids

C
H
A
P
T
E
R
3
biochemistry
Atomic Structure:
Protons =
Electrons =
Neutrons =
Mass =
Valence Electrons =
Currently unstable
Needs to obtain, give, or share 4 electrons to
become stable.
METHANE
VERSATILITY OF CARBON
Can form single
bonds, double
bonds, triple
bonds, or a
combination
those bonds.
2 Types of Hydrocarbons:
1. Aromatics = contain a
benzene ring
2. Aliphatics = no benzene
ring
Both of the above pictures demonstrate aromatic hydrocarbons
since they contain a benzene ring in their structure and contain
only hydrogen and carbon
Alkenes –
aliphatic
hydrocarbon
with at least
one double
bond
Alkynes –
aliphatic
hydrocarbon
with at least
one triple bond
Alkanes – aliphatic
hydrocarbon with
all single bonds
1
3
2
4
= synthesis of polymer by removing water
= breakdown of polymer by adding water
INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW
What are organic compounds?
By what process do monomers become polymers?
What has to be removed?
By what process do polymers become monomers?
What has to be added?
There are 4 main groups of organic molecules
essential to life: CARBOHYDRATES,
PROTEINS, LIPIDS, and NUCLEIC ACIDS
CARBOHYDRATES
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Elements =
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Monomers =
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Monosaccharides General Formula =
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Have a carbonyl group (C double bonded to O)
Straight chain or ring structure
GLUCOSE – FRUCTOSE - GALACTOSE
Isomers = same formula, different structure
Formula = C6H12O6
DISACCHARIDES
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Disaccharide means…
2 sugars are joined by what process?
What had been removed to allow the
disaccharide to form?
Sucrose (ordinary table sugar) = one glucose
and one fructose
Lactose (milk sugar) = one glucose, one
galactose
Maltose (malt sugar) = 2 glucose
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS (CONDENSATION
REACTION) FOR SUCROSE
POLYSACCHARIDES
Many sugars
Cellulose
Made by plants
Makes up 50% of wood
Cell wall of plants
Thousands of glucose
in a long chain
Starch
Made by plants
Glycogen
Hundreds of glucose branched
Stored in animal cells
PROTEINS
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Elements =
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Common examples….
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Monomers =
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Many amino acids join
in order to form a
polymer
General Structure
of an amino acid:
Carboxyl group
Amino group
Hydrogen
‘R’ group
DIPEPTIDES
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What is a dipeptide?
Where is the peptide
bond?
Dehydration
Synthesis or
Hydrolysis??
POLYPEPTIDES
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What is a polypeptide??
Dehydration synthesis or Hydrolysis??
Lock and
Key
Model
LIPIDS
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Elements =
Groups of Lipids = triglyceride,
phospholipid, wax, steroid
Nonpolar (do not dissolve in
water)
Store energy effectively in C-H
bonds
FATTY ACIDS
SATURATED / UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
Monounsaturated
vs.
Polyunsaturated
Saturated fats are solid at room
temperature
Unsaturated fats are liquid at room
temperature (such as plant oils).
TRIGLYCERIDES
A saturated or unsaturated triglyceride?
Before
After
Unsaturated
Liquid
Cis
Saturated
Solid
Trans
4 TYPES OF LIPIDS
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Waxes, Steroids
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Phospholipids = 2 fatty acids joined to glycerol
2 layers of phospholipids make up the cell
membrane = lipid bilayer
Phospholipid bilayer = barrier between the
inside and outside of the cell.
Most of the body is water, the cell membrane is
lipid…..lipids do not dissolve in water, so
barrier forms.
PHOSPHOLIPIDS

Glycerol with a
phosphate and 2
fatty acids =
PHOSPHOLIPID
PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
(THE CELL MEMBRANE)
Head = polar, hydrophilic
Tail = non-polar, hydrophobic
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4 TYPES OF LIPIDS
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Waxes, Steroids
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Wax = carboxylic acid chain (fatty acid) joined to
alcohol chain (-OH)
Wax = water-proof, protective covering
4 TYPES OF LIPIDS
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Waxes,
Steroids