Chapter 17 Notes

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Transcript Chapter 17 Notes

Chapter 17
European Renaissance and
Reformation
Renaissance
• A rebirth of art and
learning of classical
times
Florence
• Florence in Italy is the
city-state where the
Renaissance began.
Medici
• The Medici family
was a wealthy banking
family that was a
patron of the arts.
Renaissance Scholars
• They looked down at the Middle Ages arts and
literature.
• They wanted return to learning the Greek and
Rome.
• Especially in Italy, the scholars learned from the
Roman ruins.
• LIST THREE SCHOLARS FROM CHAPTER 17
– _____________________________
– _____________________________
– _____________________________
Humanism
• This is the study that
focused on human
potential and
achievements. Instead of
trying to make classical
texts agree with Christian
teaching as medieval
scholars did, humanist
studied the them to
understand ancient Greek
values
Secular
• Most of the people were Catholic.
However, the basic sprit of Renaissance
society was secular or worldly and were
mainly concerned with the here and now.
Patrons
• These were wealthy people who supported
the arts and the artists by financially support
them.
• The Medici families were very big patrons
of the arts and supported many artists.
Renaissance Man
• This was a man who
excelled in all aspects
of the arts.
Renaissance Women
• Women were supposed to inspire art not
create the art.
New Techniques
• Donatello made
sculpture more
realistic by carving
natural postures and
expressions.
Perspective
• Renaissance artist also
rediscovered the
technique of
perspective, which
indicated three
dimensions
New ideas about art developed
• Art moved north to
Netherlands, England,
Germany.
• Durer painted
religious subjects and
landscapes.
• Holbein, Van Eyck
and Bruegel painted
peasant life and
portraits.
Leonardo Da Vinci
• He was a sculptor,
inventor, painter, and
scientist.
• Among his
masterpiece was the
Mona Lisa
Vernacular
• Written in the local language.
Machiavelli
• He wrote the Prince. In it Machiavelli
examinines how a ruler can gain power and
keep it in spite of his enemies,
• He states that most people are selfish,
fickle, and corrupt.
Printing Press
• In 1455, Johann
Gutenberg invented the
printing press. This
machine presses paper
against a a tray full of
inked movable type. He
printed the Bible and it
was the first full size book
printed on a moveable
type.
Utopia
• A book by Thomas More describing an
ideal place. In Utopia, greed, corruption,
and crime had been weeded out. This is
because Utopians have little use for money
and are not greedy.
William Shakespeare
• He is often called the
greatest playwrite of all
time. His plays showed a
brilliant command of the
English language.
• They also show a deep
understanding of people
and how they interact with
one another
• Ex Hamlet, Romero and
Juliet, King Lear
Problems with the Church
• Popes more concerned with luxury and
political power.
• Lower Priest lacked education and were
unable to teach people.
• Many lived immoral lives
• Reformers wanted the Church to change its
ways to become more spiritual and humble.
Martin Luther
• He was a German
Monk who in 1517 the
church officials selling
indulgences.
• Which is a kind of
forgiveness. By
paying money to the
Church, people
thought they could
win salvation.
95 thesis
• Luther challenged the indulgences and other
practices and posted on the church door his
95 thesis or formal statements attacking the
church.
• This was the beginning of the Reformation,
a movement for reform that led to the
founding of new Christian Churches.
Lutheran church
• The Pope punished Luther
for his views, but he
refused to change them.
The emperor called Luther
and outlaw and burned his
books. It was to late for
many of his ideas were
already in practice. This
was the start of the
Lutheran Church.
Protestant
• Christians who belonged to non-Catholic
churches.
Peace of Augsburg
• War broke out between the Catholics and
protestant forces in Germany. It finally
ended in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg.
• This treaty granted each prince the right to
decide whether his subjects would be
Catholic or Protestant.
Henry VIII
• King of England.
Married to a Spanish
Princess who only
gave birth to a
daughter.
• Henry wanted a male
and asked the Pope for
an annulment. The
Pope refused.
Anglican Church
• Henry then had Parliament to create a new
Church with the King or Queen of England
instead of the Pope as head of the church.
• He then created the Church of England.
• His daughter Queen Elizabeth, finished
creating the church and called it the
Anglican Church.
Spanish Armada
• In 1588, the Spain
launched a huge fleet
of ships- known as the
Armada in invade
England.
• The fleet was defeated
by a combination of
English fighting skills
and a terrible storm.
John Calvin
• Another Protestant was
John Calvin.
• He taught that people are
sinful by nature.
• He taught predestination,
the idea that God
determines beforehand
who will be saved. This
religion is called
Calvinism