effect of tied rigdes and plant population on productivity of
effect of tied rigdes and plant population on productivity of
EFFECT OF TIED RIGDES AND PLANT POPULATION ON
PRODUCTIVITY OF COMMON BEAN AND PIGEON PEA IN
EASTERN AND CENTRAL KENYA
MIRIAM W. WAINAINA (A56/75496/2012)
Dr. GEORGE CHEMINIG’WA
Dr. ANTHONY ESILABA- KARI
• Agricultural sector in Kenya is still the backbone of the
national economy but is still far from potential.
• It contributes 26% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 60%
of the export earnings.
• About 80% of the Kenyan population lives in the rural areas
and derive their livelihood largely from agriculture (Strategy
for Revitalizing Agriculture: 2004-2014)
• Nearly 90% of staple food production will continue to come
from rain-fed smallholder farming system.
• Rain-fed agriculture will therefore remain vital for
food security in Kenya.
• However due to the current season to season
variability of rainfall climate change has stagnated
rain-fed agricultural productivity.
• Improving water management and transforming land
use for better and sustainable utilization and
management to restore productivity can envision
productivity to contribute significantly to countries
• Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pigeon pea
(Cajanus cajan) are increasingly becoming important
legume crops of rain-fed agriculture especially in the ASAL
• Consumed as mature grain, immature seed as well as
vegetable both leaves and pods especially common bean.
• Are the major source of high level of cheap proteins
contributing up to one-third of the dietary proteins needs
of human population globally (Sehmi.J.K.1998).
• Both contains amino acids like lysine and tryptophan
(Miklas et al. 2006) and mineral nutrients such as iron and
• Pigeon pea is a drought tolerant legume grown in
semiarid tropics though well adapted to several
environments (Troedson et al., 1990).
• The crop represents about 5% of world legume
production (Hillocks et al.,2000).
• Drought poses one of the most important
environmental constrains to plant survival and
• Pigeon pea remains one of the most drought tolerant
legumes (Velenzuela and Smith; 2002)
Statement of the problem
• Most small-scale farmers in the dry areas cultivate
bean and pigeon pea crops without using
appropriate crop spacing.
• This has led to low yields in production due to
farmers using low plant population.
• Other constraints are unpredictable weather pattern
causing prolonged droughts due to climate change.
• Farmers lack knowledge in conserving the moisture
for the available water
• Food insecurity is the major challenges in sub
Saharan countries including Kenya.
• Beans and pigeon pea are versatile crops and are
preferred by farmers even in the unstable
environments of low moisture and are easily
intercropped with other cereals.
• Due to the climate change caused by global warming,
increase in temperature is threatening the
production of these crops.
• It is imperative to investigate the appropriate
agronomic management and production challenges
encountered by these farmers in coping with the
dynamics of the climate change.
• This is by use of tied ridges in moisture conservation
and use of the optimal plant population for high yields.
• Studies done by KARI-Marigat has shown that use of
tied ridges as water harvesting and moisture
conservation has increased yields in sorghum and
millet among other crops in dry areas.
• Tied ridges have an advantage of retaining
rainwater within furrows and prevent runoff.
• Ties provide good insurance against collapse
of ridges during heavy rains and loss of rain
water by discharge from the ends of furrows
• To assess direct and interaction effects of
moisture conservation and plant population
on productivity of legume crops under
different temperature regime
1) To determine the appropriate plant population
density for common bean and pigeon pea production
in different agro-ecological environment
2) To evaluate the effectiveness of tied ridges practices
to enhance common bean and pigeon pea
• High plant population will result on low yield
• Tied ridges will have no effect on moisture
• Study will be conducted in three sites namely
KARI OR Joro Olok, KARI- Katumani and CAVSKabete Campus.
Materials and Methods
• Two legumes crops will be used for the study.
• Dry seeds of common beans (Phaseolus
vulgaris) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) will
be the test crops.
• Phosphorus fertilizer will be applied in blanket
• There will be three treatments of plant
densities: low, medium and high
• These densities will be superimposed on two
soil and water conservation management
practices i.e. Tied ridges and Normal Tillage
• Treatments will be factorial experiments with
twelve treatments (2x3x2) replicated thrice
Plant population of bean: Low(P0) (spacing within the row –
20cm), Medium (P1) (15cm) and High (P2)(12cm)
Medium duration varieties of bean (C1) and
Pigeon pea (C2)
Experimental design and Layout
• The trial will be conducted using split-split design
• The main plots will represent the two soil water management
practices (W0 and W1), Sub-plots three plant population (P0,
P1 and P2) and sub-sub plots of two crops common bean(C1)
and Pigeon pea (C2)
Sub-sub plot size: 6mx5m
Number of plots: 36
• There will be randomization of the treatments
in the whole plot, sub-plots and sub-sub plots
Land will be prepared using normal land preparation
procedure and details of all operations will be recorded
Area will be divided into 3 blocks each measuring 6mx60m
separated by 1m walk way
12 plots of 6mx5m within each block will be marked. 1.0m
pathway between main plots will be provided. No free space
is required between sub-plots
Plots will be numbered and a map of field layout of plots will
• Soil samples from different depth will be collected using an
• The treatments will be assigned randomly following the three
step randomization process described. Treatment number will
be entered into the field layout plan prepared
• Crops will be planted using recommended spacing between
row spacing for bean is 45cm and for pigeon pea is 100cm. At
this row spacing each plot will have 13 rows of bean and 6
rows of pigeon pea.
• 40kg of phosphorus per hectare will be applied
• Within the row plant spacing depends on the crop
and plant population.
• Suggested spacing between and within rows:
Bean: spacing within the row is: Low- 20cm;
Medium- 15cm; High-12cm
Pigeon pea: Spacing within the rows: Low;40cm;
Medium; 30cm; High; 24cm
• All plots will be maintained weed free throughout
the period of crop growth by hand weeding
• Also plots will be kept free from pests and diseases
by doing need based plant protection
• Time of harvesting depends on the crop. Crop will be
harvested at maturity from designated sample area.
• Seeds will be air dried and dry matter together with
seed yield will be recorded
Data to be collected
Site characteristics data: This will includes latitude, soil
texture and depth, slope length(m)
Climate data which includes daily rainfall (mm), daily
maximum and minimum temperature ( oC)
Crop phenology will comprise cultivar name, days to
germination, days to 50% flowering, number of leaves
and plant height
Crop growth data will be total biomass at harvest
(kg/ha), grain yield (kg/h), final plant population(plts/m2)
Management data will includes data for all
operations (sowing, thinning, weeding, tillage
(type), fertilizer application harvesting
Data collected will be analyzed for mean
comparison using ANOVA
1)The optimum plant population density
for common bean and pigeon pea will be
2)The most effective practice for water
conservation in production of common
bean and pigeon pea will be established
3)MSc Thesis produced
Daily Subsistence allowances
Fungicides, insecticides and sprays
Fuels and lubricants for transport
Purchase of certified crop seeds
Purchase of Stationeries
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