organic compounds ppt

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Transcript organic compounds ppt

Organic vs. Inorganic
• Organic Compounds
• 90% of all known
compounds.
• Compounds made of
carbon based molecules.
FiveTypes:
• Hydrocarbons (Fuels),
• Lipids (Fats)
• Carbohydrates (Sugar
and Starch)
• Protiens –made of Amino
Acids
• Nucleic Acid (DNA, RNA)
Inorganic compounds
very small simple
molecules that are not
based on carbon;
including;
water and salt.
Carbon is the element of life
The only element that can bind itself in long
stable chains without a great expenditure of
energy…long chains are required for life on
earth.
Carbon structure Reason there are
so many different types of organic
compounds.
# of Protons = 6
# of Neutrons = 6
# of Electrons = 6
Valence electrons; electrons in
the outermost energy level of an atom.
Carbon has 4 valence electrons which
allow for many combinations of atoms to
bond to it.
The Carbon Cycle Natural recycler of
Carbon atoms. The same carbon atom
can move through many organisms and
even end in the same place where it began…
Atmosphere
CO
Respiration
Photosynthesis
Plants
and
Algae
Carnivore
Burning Fossil
Fuel
Decomposition
Decompostion
Herbivores
Soil
Soil
Soil
CO2 is the gas from which comes the raw material of life.
Renewable as it goes from CO to C H O (glucose) is used
by plant or animal who ingests it and then released back
into the air or ground.
Photosynthesis 6H2 O + 6CO2
Water + Carbon Dioxide
Respiration
6O + C6H12 O6
Oxygen + Glucose
6O + C6 H12 O 6
Oxygen + Glucose
6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP
Water + Carbon Dioxide + Energy
Decomposition the breakdown of a compound into simpler
parts.
Water
•Is a great solvent
•Can ionize into Hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions
•Is less dense as a solid
•With properties of cohesion and adhesion, form the
structure of a tree’s ability to feed itself and stand up.
•Is 70% of the earth’s surface and our bodies.
Forming and breaking Polymers
• Dehydration
synthesis
• Taking out water (an
H from one side and
an OH from the other)
to make a larger
compound
• To make A
polyscaccaride, a
protein, a lipid
• Hydrolysis
• The adding of water
to break up
compounds into
monomers
• Making A
monosaccharide, a
fatty acid, an amino
acid
FATS
Saturated fatty acid- no double bonds
Unsaturated At least two carbon atoms SHARE a double
or triple bond.
Fats
• Add glycerol with fatty acids to make a
lipid:
A triglyceride results or fat polymer
And 3 water
molecules
Fat Categories
Carbohydrates
A monosaccharide is a basic building
block for a carbohydrate.
Glucose, fructose, and lactose are
examples of monosaccharides.
They are used for quick energy.
Important polysaccharides, polymers
of carbs. Include
•
starch for long term storage
•
chitin for insect hard coverings
•
cellulose for plant support
•
glycogen for energy storage
Protein
• Made from amino acids
• Has an amino group- yellow, a acid groupblue, and a variable R which differs in 20
amino acids
Polypeptide/Protein
Together amino acids make
up a polypeptide.
Their shape is determined
by the attractions between
the amino acids
And their shape determines
their function.
A new food pyramid
Compound
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Monomer
Polymer
Functions
Examples
Bibliography
All images found on Google and these sites
www.healthscienceinstitute.com
www.burns-pet-nutrition.co.uk
www.biology.lsu.edu
www.biology.lsa.umich.edu