Ch 4 Carbon student

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Transcript Ch 4 Carbon student

Chemistry of Carbon
Chapter 4
Building Blocks of Life
AP Biology
Why study Carbon?
 All of life is built on carbon
 Cells

~72% H2O

~____________% carbon compounds
 carbohydrates
 lipids
 proteins
 nucleic acids
~3% salts
 Na, Cl, K…

AP Biology
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds
 Organic chemistry is the study of
_____________________________________compounds
 Organic compounds- compounds containing
_____________________________________, and usually
_____________________________________

Ex. ________________Methane

Synthesized _____________________________________ in early Earth

Exception- ______________(inorganic)
AP Biology
Macromolecules
 Smaller organic molecules join together to form larger molecules
_____________________________________
4 major classes of macromolecules:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
AP Biology
Carbons forms diverse molecules by bonding to four
other Atoms
 4 valence electrons- valence of __________

Bonding partners: _____________________________________
 Forms _____________________________________ bonds

May be _____________________________________ or
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
 Tetra= 4
AP Biology

Tetrahedral
 Forms _____________________________________ Occurs when
Carbon forms _______ _____________________________________ bonds
with other atoms (arrangement of orbitals) known as a tetrahedral
shape
 Ex. Methane (CH4)
 Ethane (C2H6)
 Ethene (ethylene)- 2 Carbon atoms joined by a
_____________________________________ bond
 Forms a flat molecule- Carbons are in same plane
 _____________________________________ of molecule determines
AP Biology
_____________________________________
Properties of Carbon
 C atoms are versatile building blocks
Bonding properties
 4 stable covalent bonds
Accounts for diversity of biological molecules


H
H
C
H
AP Biology
H
Studies of Organic Compounds
 _____________________________________ belief in life outside physical and
chemical laws
 No longer accepted
 Freidrich _____________________________________ 1828 ; German chemist
attempted to make an “inorganic” salt (Ammonia cyanate) by mixing
ammonia ions (NH4+) and cyanate ions (CNO-)

Made _____________________________________ organic compound
found in _____________________________________
 Hermann _____________________________________ Wohler’s student made
_____________________________________ acid from inorganic compounds
 Abiotic synthesis of organic compounds from early life’s elementsAP Biology
_____________________________________ experiment (1953)
Carbon Skeleton Variation

_____________________________________
 Ethane, Propane

_____________________________________ straight or branched
 Butane

_____________________________________ Bonds
 Butene

_____________________________________
 Benzene
AP Biology
AP Biology
Hydrocarbons (HC)

Organic compounds consisting of only C & H
 Ex. _____________________________________, Butene,
Benzene,
_____________________________________

_____________________________________

________________prevalent in
_____________________________________
 Except lipids- hydrocarbon tails
______________at room temp
_____________________________________
APBiology

methane
(simplest HC)
Hydrocarbons (HC)
 Prevalent in _____________________________________

Ex. _____________________________________, gasoline
 _____________________________________(______________)
 Store large amounts of energy

Ex. Fats in mammals stored in
AP Biology
Complex molecules assembled like TinkerToys
AP Biology
Isomers
 Molecules with ____________________________molecular formula but
different structures (shapes)

different ____________________________ properties

different biological ____________________________
6 carbons
6 carbons
AP Biology
6 carbons
3 Types of Isomers
 ____________________________ - ____________________________ covalent
partners
 May be differ in location of ____________________________ bonds
 ____________________________ - ____________________________ covalent
partners, different ____________________________ arrangement
 Difference in shape- affects biological activity
 ____________________________ - ____________________________ images of
each other
 Middle Carbon- ____________________________ Carbon
 Ex. ________________________& ____________________________
models
 Important for pharmaceuticals
AP Biology
 Asthma and pain medications
3 Types of isomers
AP Biology
Form affects function
 Structural differences create important functional significance



amino acid ____________________________
 L-alanine used in proteins
 but not D-alanine
medicines
 L-version active
 but not D-version
sometimes with
tragic results…
AP Biology
stereoisomers
Figure 4.7 The pharmacological importance of enantiomers
AP Biology
Form affects function
 Thalidomide



prescribed to ____________________________ women in 50s & 60s
reduced ____________________________ sickness, but…
stereoisomer caused severe birth defects
AP Biology
Functional groups
 Parts of organic molecules that are involved in chemical
____________________________
 give organic molecules distinctive properties
 ____________________________  ____________________________
 ____________________________  ____________________________
 ____________________________  ____________________________
 Affect reactivity

makes hydrocarbons ____________________________
increase solubility in water
AP Biology

Viva la difference!
 Basic structure of male & female hormones is
____________________________



identical ____________________________ ______________
attachment of different functional groups
interact with different targets in the body
 different effects
AP Biology
Carbonyl
 ____________________________

O double bonded to C
 if C=O at end molecule = ____________________________
 if C=O in middle of molecule = ____________________________
AP Biology
Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides
AP Biology
Hydroxyl
 –____________________________



organic compounds with OH = ____________________________
names typically end in -ol
 Ethanol
Hydroxyl
AP Biology
Amino
 - ____________________________

N attached to 2 H
 compounds with NH2 = ____________________________
 amino acids
 NH2 acts as base
 ammonia picks up H+ from solution
AP Biology
Sulfhydryl
 –____________________________

S bonded to H
 compounds with SH = ____________________________
 SH groups stabilize the structure of proteins
AP Biology
Phosphate
 –____________________________

P bound to 4 O
 connects to C through an O
 lots of O = lots of negative charge
 highly ____________________________
 transfers energy between organic molecules
 ATP, GTP, etc.
AP Biology
Carboxyl
 –____________________________

C double bonded to O & single bonded to OH group
 compounds with COOH = ____________________________
 fatty acids
 amino acids
AP Biology
AP Biology
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ATP
 Adenosine ____________________________(ATP)- cells main
energy souce
 Organic compound attached to 3
____________________________ groups
 Adenosine ____________________________(ADP)-
 A Phosphate may split off in ____________________________
AP Biology
Polymers
 Long molecules built by ____________________________ repeating
building blocks in a chain


____________________________
 building blocks
 repeated small units
covalent bonds
HO
H 2O
H
HO
H
Dehydration synthesis
HO
AP Biology
H
Building & Breaking Polymers
Dehydration synthesis
Condensation reaction
_
_____________________
polymers from monomer
________________________ = _____________________
Monomer+ Monomer
Polymer
________________________ = water _____________________
_____________________ down polymers into monomers
Hydrolysis
____________________ = _____________________
AP Biology
_____________________ = Break _____________________
Polymer
Monomers
How to build a polymer
 _____________________________________


joins monomers by “taking” H2O out
 one monomer donates OH–
 other monomer donates H+
 together these form H2O
You gotta
be open to
“bonding!
requires ________________________ & __________________________
H 2O
HO
H
Dehydration synthesis
HO
H
enzyme
Condensation reaction
AP Biology
HO
H
Dehydration Synthesis
AP Biology
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How to break down a polymer
 ______________________________

Breaking up
is hard to do!
use H2O to breakdown polymers
 reverse of dehydration synthesis
 cleave off one monomer at a time
 H2O is split into H+ and OH–
 H+ & OH– attach to ends


requires _________________________________
releases energy
H2O
HO
enzyme
H
Hydrolysis
AP Biology
Digestion
HO
H
HO
H
AP Biology
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