hapch2updated2013final

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HUMAN ANATOMY &
PHYSIOLOGY
CHAPTER 2-BASIC CHEMISTRY
Concepts of Matter & Energy
• Matter=”stuff” of the universe existing as
____________________states on earth/solid has
definite volume and shape;liquid only definite
volume and gas-has neither
• Physical change-does not alter basic nature whereas
chemical alters _________________________.
• ENERGYonly measured by effects on matter_______________
• ______energy of motion and potential is __________.
kinetic
Solid liquid and
gas
composition
Ability to do
work
Stored
energy
Energy forms:
• ______________-stored in chemical bondsinvolved in cellular respiration
– _____________-comes from movement of
charged particles-used in nerve impulses
– __________-Directly involved in moving
matter-eg.movement of limbs
– _______-travels in waves;electromagnetic
spectrum-x-rays,infrared,visible
light,radio,UV,gamma
Chemical energy
radiant
electrical
Mechanical
energy
• Energy is usually converted from one form
to another-some of initial energy is lost to
environment-This is how we maintain body
temperature
II. Composition of Matter
• 112_____________(#s 113-118 alleged)92 occur in
nature- elements are alike in atoms and unique
atomic #/represented on periodic table , organized
by atomic # and short hand representation is
_________________-Look at Chart p.30
• Atoms made of positive protons and neutral
____________in nucleus/both heavier w/ mass of 1
AMU,,surrounded by _______electrons(mass
=minute fraction of an amu ),in energy levels
elements
symbol
neutrons
(-)
Table 2.1 Common Elements Making Up the Human Body
Table 2.1 Common Elements
Making Up the Human Body
Table 2.1 Common Elements Making Up the Human Body (3 of 3)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
• Atomic # = # protons
• Atomic mass #= # p+n
• Atomic mass –average of all isotope
masses for an element
• p’s and e-‘s are = to make a neutral
atom/losing electrons creates a + charge
and gaining e’s creates a (-) charge/+ andattract ,while likes repel
• _____________-e’s are arranged in
energy levels w/in an electron cloud
•
Orbital model
FigureNucleus
2.1 The structure
of an
Nucleus
atom.
Helium atom
Helium atom
2 protons (p+)
2 neutrons (n0)
2 electrons (e–)
2 protons (p+)
2 neutrons (n0)
2 electrons (e–)
(a) Planetary model
(b) Orbital model
KEY:
= Proton
= Electron
= Neutron
= Electron cloud
• ______________________________are atoms that
differ in number of neutrons,are identified my mass
number,and one medical use is as tracers in medical
diagnosis.---see.pp 10-11
• _____________________=spontaneous atomic
decay(alpha,beta, and the more intense gamma)
• __________________________________occur
whenever atoms combine with or dissociate from
other atoms
• _____________________-2 or more combined
chemically;more specifically a compound
radioisotopes
molecule
Chemical reactions
radiation
Table 2.3 Atomic Structures of the Most Abundant Elements in the Body
• 2 bond we see in living things are
__________________,w/a transfer of electrons and
___________________________w/a sharing of
electrons-this transfer or sharing is occurring with
the electron shells(ie. Energy levels)
• Outer -_____________________electrons determine
bonding capacity and thus properties--These
electrons have more energy ,away from the +
nucleus
• _______-charged atom
ionic
valence
ion
covalent
• Polar molecules have unequal sharing of
electrons ,as seen in water
• Water bonds to other water atoms by Hbonds-a weak bond/polar molecules orient
themselves towards other polar molecules
• These combined H-bonds create a high
surface tension
Figure 2.9b Hydrogen bonding
between polar water molecules.
•
•
•
•
3 reaction types
synthesis ----2H2 + O2 2H2O
__________------H2O 2H2 +O2
Exchange---2HCl + Zn ZnCl2 +H2
OR HCl + NaOH HOH +NaCl
• Most chemical reactions are
reversible,indicated by a double arrow
• A+BAB
•

decomposition
III.Biochemistry:Chemical
Composition of Living Matter
• __________________ contain carbon
,but not all are involved in living
things(inorganic lack C-----CO,CO2 and
cyanide 3 exemptions-they are
inorganic
Organic
compounds
INORGANICS--_WATER-most abundant
compound in the body
• high heat capacity(ie . before a temperature change absorbs
and releases a lot of heat change thus preventing us from
sudden body temperature changes.
• ___________________________-“universal solvents”
• Solute dissolves in a _________________ to make a
solution-Thus water able to transport many materials
•
3. chemical reactivity
• __________________________reaction---water added to the
bond.
• 4.____________________________-protective as in CSF or
amniotic fluid
solvent
Polarity/solvent
properties
cushioning
hydrolysis
+
Figure 2.11 Dissociation of salt
in water.
H
–
O
H
+
Water molecule
Na+
Na+
Cl–
Salt
crystal
Cl–
Ions in
solution
INORGANIC COMPOUNDSSALTS
• Salt contains cation besides H+ and an anion
besides OH-…examples:NaCl,KCl,CaI2
• Easily separate into ions_______________________
• Because ions are charged particles,all salts are
_______________________-able to conduct a current
dissociation
electrolytes
• ______________-pH<7 and proton donor
• ______________-pH> 7 and proton
acceptor
• pH measures H+ concentration
• Acid +Base=Salt + water –all neutral
NEUTRALIZATION REACTION
base
acid
buffers
• _____________prevents sharp pH change
FOUR CLASSES of MACROMOLECULES in living
:
things
• _____________=chainlike molecules made of many
similar repeating units
called_________________.These are joined by
dehydration synthesis-Here a H-atom is removed
from one monomer and a hydroxyl group(OH) is
removed from from the monomer it is being joined
with…a water molecule is released
• When a polymer needs to be broken down/digested
the reverse happens-_____________occurs-water
molecule added to each bond, releasing monomers
polymers
monomers
hydrolysis
•
•
•
1)Carbohydrates(this means”hydrated C”)-FIRST
SOURCE FOR ENERGY!!!!!inc. sugars,starches/have
C,H and O in a 1:2:1 ratio-(w/some exceptions)
Example: C6H12O6= GLUCOSE-(blood sugar)
Sugars inc. monosaccharide(Glucose, fructose,
galactose ,ribose and deoxyiribose),disaccharidedouble sugars-2 monosaccharides joined by
dehydration(Sucrose,lactose,maltose)---must be
broken down to monosaccharides to be digested) and
polysaccharides-long branching chains (starch and
glycogen )---ideal for storage---/but lack the sweetness
of smaller sugars(starch and glycogen)….Examples of
starches______________________________
Pasta,rice,bread,carrots
Figure 2.14c Carbohydrates.
Lipids-made of C,H and O---look
at lipid table p.46
Enter body as fat –marbled meats,egg yolks,milk
products,and oils
•
•
---made up of often fatty acids and glycerol
__________________________-are solid fats with
all C-C bonds filled-no double
or triple
bonds….______________________-are liquids and
they have at least 1 C-C double bond-either monoor polyunsaturated
Saturated fats
unsaturated
lipids
Glycerol
3 fatty acid chains
Triglyceride, or neutral fat
(a) Formation of a triglyceride
3 water
molecules
Polar “head”
Nonpolar “tail”
Phosphorus-containing
Glycerol
group (polar end)
backbone
(b) Phospholipid molecule (phosphatidylcholine)
(c) Cholesterol
2 fatty acid chains
(nonpolar end)
Glycerol
3 fatty acid chains
(a) Formation of a triglyceride
Triglyceride, or neutral fat
3 water
molecules
• Neutral fats_triglycerides• made of fatty acid and glycerol( 3 fatty acids attached
to 1 glycerol)
• in fat deposits-in subcutaneous tissue and around
organs-protect,insulate and major energy source
• Trans fats---(common in margarines and baked
products) -oils solidifies by adding H atoms---considered bad for the cardiovascular system
• Omega -3 fatty acids(in cold water fish)-help your
heart and immune system
• Phospholipids found
in cell membrane
.
• _____________fat soluble-inc. cholesterol and
hormones,such as sex hormones-cholesterol basis
of all body steroids
• Cholesterol is the single most important steroid-from
animal products and made by the liver---found in cell
membranes ,raw material of vitamin D, steroid
hormones, and bile salts
• ______________a breakdown product of
cholesterol;released by liver into digestive tract-aid
in fat digestion and absorption
steroids
Bile salts
• ____________________-cortisol;aldersterone
• LIPIDS ALSO Includes vitamins A(for
vision)E(wound healing,fertility,antioxidant),K(for
clotting,Prostaglandins-from fatty acidmembranes(used in labor,blood pressure, movement
in digestive tract and in
inflammation),lipoproteins(transport fatty acids and
cholesterol in bloodstream-HDL and LDL)
corticosteroids
PROTEINS•
made up of monomer of amino acids;>50% organic
matter in the body,contain C,H,O,and N,~ 20 amino
acids,polypeptide is another word for protein
(containing fewer than 50 amino acids )and peptide
bonds join amino acids-made of an amine (NH2)
grp and an acid(COOH) grp,differ in R-grp
– Fibrous(or structural) strandlike /Proteins are in
most body structures;provide strengtheg.collagen in bones,cartilage and
tendons…..also KERATIN—protein of hair
,nails,&skin-providing toughness
– Globular proteins-mobile and mostly spherical
and DO things---FUNCTIONAL PROTEINS---examples:enzymes-regulate
reactions,antibodies---H-bonds and van der
waals force help them-like hemoglogin,keep
their shape
Figure 2.17 Amino acid
structures.
Amine
group
Acid
group
(a) Generalized
structure of all
amino acids
(b) Glycine
(the simplest
amino acid)
(c) Aspartic acid
(an acidic
amino acid)
(d) Lysine
(a basic
amino acid
(e) Cysteine
(a sulfurcontaining
amino acid)
4 levels of protein structure
.
Heme group
Globin
protein
(a) Triple helix of collagen
(a fibrous or structural protein).
(b) Hemoglobin molecule composed of the
protein globin and attached heme groups.
(Globin is a globular or functional protein.)
– less stable than fibrous structures/If that
structure is compromised by heat or
extremes of pH, they
are__________________-no longer perform
their physiological functions.(because
their structure dictates their function)
denatured
– Draw an enzyme (biological catalyst) –
substrate complex and label active site
– increases reaction rate/controls most
physiological reactions
.
Energy is Water is
absorbed; released.
bond is
H2O
formed.
Substrates (S)
e.g., amino acids
+
Product (P)
e.g., dipeptide
Peptide
bond
Active site
Enzyme-substrate
complex (E-S)
Enzyme (E)
1 Substrates bind to active
site. Enzyme changes shape
to hold substrates in proper
position.
2 Structural changes
occur, resulting in the
product.
Enzyme (E)
3 Product is released.
Enzyme returns to
original shape, ready
to catalyze another
reaction.
– Enzymes include_________________that
add water ,OXIDASES-add O2,etc
– Most enzymes are produced in inactive
form and must be activated/some
inactivated immediately after they catalyze
reaction—example in blood clotting
process
hydrolases
NUCLEIC ACIDS-made of C,H,O,N and P
*DNA provides heredity and RNA takes DNA’s info to
make proteins/the monomer is a nucleotide
consisting of sugar,nitrogenous base and a
phosphate group.Label the nucleotide for
DNA,then RNA:
---Bases in DNA: Adenine bonds w/ thymine and
cytosine with guanine/ Uracil replaces thymine in
RNA
ATP is the energy storage molecule-This is what carbs
are broken down into so we can get usable energy--ATP and ADP continually recycle
Without ATP,molecules cannot be made or broken
down,cells cannot maintain their boundaries, and all
life processes stop!
Adenine
High
energy
bonds
Ribose
Phosphates
(a) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Adenosine diphosphate
(ADP)
(b) Hydrolysis of ATP
Solute
Membrane
protein
(b) Transport work. ATP drives the
transport of certain solutes (amino
acids, for example) across cell
membranes.
Relaxed
smooth
muscle cell
Contracted
smooth
muscle cell
(c) Mechanical work. ATP activates
contractile proteins in muscle cells
so that the cells can shorten and
perform mechanical work.