Molecules to Metabolism

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Transcript Molecules to Metabolism

Topic #2: Molecular
Biology
Molecules to Metabolism 2.1
What must cells do to stay alive?
 Maintain
regulation - Get rid of wastes,
ingest food and water
 Grow & Develop
 Respond to changes in their environment
 Reproduce
 Process energy
 Adapt
 How does each cell do this?
Living organisms are collections of
elements in the form of atoms, ions, and
molecules.
 Living things rely on chemical reactions,
which take place at the molecular level.
 You rely on your cells to perform trillion of
chemical reactions every second.

Biochemistry
 The
study of biologically
important reactions and
the molecules and
processes involved in
them is called
biochemistry.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpBAmzQ_pUE
Molecular Biology

Molecular biology
explains living
processes in terms of
the chemical
substances involved

Examples?
Cell Membrane
 Phospholipids
= hydrocarbon chains with
phosphate group
 3nm to 10 nm thick
 The cell maintains a sophisticated barrier
between itself and the outside world
 Prior to knowing what the cell membrane
actually looked like, scientists used
chemical knowledge and procedures to
make inferences
Metabolism

Web of enzyme-catalysed reactions in a
cell or organism
Metabolism
 metabolic
reactions and processes that
take place in the cells of organisms can
convert energy from nutrients into ATP
 CATABOLISM = the breakdown of
complex molecules into simpler molecules
Metabolism
 Each
cell uses energy to build the
structures it needs from materials available
in its external environment – atoms and
molecules.
 ANABOLISM = the synthesis of complex
molecules from simpler molecules
The periodic table for biologists

The Element song!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1TfPDlA1xE
Chemistry Review
Periodic Table
 Metals and non-metals
 Element, Ion, Compound
 Valence electrons
 Covalent bonds

Elements
 The
4 most common elements found in living
things are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
nitrogen.
 Used in the molecular structures of all
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and
nucleic acids.
Organic Chemistry

the scientific study of the structure,
properties, and reactions of matter in its
various forms that contain carbon atoms
Hydrocarbons

worksheet
Carbon and Hydrogen

Carbon and hydrogen are the backbone of
organic molecules,
 sugars
and carbohydrates, amino acids and
proteins, and lipids (fats and oils)

Hydrogen ions (H+) are used in active
transport, photosynthesis and cell
respiration
Carbon and Hydrogen
Life is based on carbon compounds
 Carbon atoms form 4 covalent bonds

 Allowing
diversity of stable compounds
Oxygen
Main role is to allow aerobic respiration to
occur. This is the last stage of cell
respiration (much more of this to come!)
 Oxygen is also used in oxidation reactions
where oxygen is put into ATP to release
energy into tissues.

Nitrogen
The main use of nitrogen is in the
production of amino acids. Amino acids
are transformed into proteins.
 Nitrogen is also used in chlorophyll.

Functions of other elements

a variety of other elements are needed
by living organisms, including sulfur,
calcium, phosphorous, iron, and
sodium.

Get out your cell phones…
 Find
one role for each of the elements
above…. Go
Element
Example role in plants
Example role in animals
Iron
In cytochromes
In cytochromes and in
hemoglobin
Sulfur
In some amino acids
In some amino acids
Calcium
Co-factor in some enzymes
Co-factor in some enzymes
and component of bones
Phosphorous
Phosphate groups in ATP and
phospholipids
Phosphate groups in ATP
and phospholipids
Sodium
In membrane function
In membrane function (NaK pump) and sending nerve
impulses
Potassium
Provides the necessary
environment for metabolic
activities
Major cation inside the cell.
Used in neurotransmission,
muscle contraction, etc