There are two categories of compounds

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Transcript There are two categories of compounds

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NOW:
What
does this
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mean to
you?
There are two
categories of
compounds:
•Organic
•Inorganic
•Substances that are
formed by the
chemical combination
of two or more
elements
Most abundant
compound on Earth is
___________
water
•Elements have very
different properties
“actions/appearances” than
the compounds that they
form.
H = Hydrogen = gas
O = Oxygen = gas
H2O = water = liquid
• Are expressed
through formulas
1. Chemical formulas
2.Structural formulas
C12H22O11
C6H12O6
The attraction of
atoms that cause
element to form
compounds
•is any member of a
large class of chemical
compounds whose
molecules contain
carbon and hydrogen
•Found in all living
things
Examples
•C6H1206
•CH4
•Is any member of a
large class of chemical
compounds of molecules
that contain earths
elements
•Not capable of creating
life, no combination
makes life
Examples
•NaCl
• H2 O
•CO2
Compounds
Organic
Contains Carbon &
Hydrogen always
together!
Example: C6H12O6
glucose (sugar)
Inorganic
Contains the
earth’s element
Example: H2O
water
Four Major Groups of
Organic Compounds
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Organic Compounds can combine
to produce macromolecules!!!
Macromolecules
“giant molecules” that are made of
thousands or even hundreds of
thousands of smaller molecules.
1. Nucleic Acids

Importance: stores cellular information in the
form of a code
 Elements: C, H, O, N, P
 Subunits : Nucleotides
 Each nucleotide contains:
 Nitrogenous base
 Phosphorus
 5 Carbon Sugar

Examples:
DNA and RNA
Structural formula
2.Carbohydrates
Building blocks:
Monosaccharide's
Aka
simple sugars
Chemical Formulas:
C6H12O6
Glucose
C12H22O11
Sucrose
(table sugar)
Ratio 1:2:1
Carbohydrate Functions
Source of short term & long term
ENERGY and FOOD STORAGE
Carbohydrates come in many forms
that are classified into three categories:
Summary
A sample of food containing one type of a large
molecule was treated with a specific
digestive enzyme. Nutrient tests performed on
the resulting products showed the presence of
simple sugars, only. Based on these test results,
the original large molecules contained in the
sample were molecules of……
STARCH!
PART 2
In plants, simple sugars are least
likely to be
1.
2.
3.
4.
linked together to form
proteins
broken down into carbon
dioxide and water
used as a source of energy
stored in the form of starch
molecules
?
3.Lipids
Building blocks :
One Glycerol
molecule and three
Fatty Acid
molecules
Chemical Formulas:
C57H110O6
C54H99O6
Ratio is greater than
1:2:1
Lipid Functions
include energy storage, acting as
structural components of cell
membranes, insulation, and
participating as important signaling
molecules
Lipids make up
fats, oils and waxes
Lipids

can be found in butter, olive oil, peanut oil, cheese,
milk, animal fat.
TOO MUCH IN YOUR DIET CAN LEAD TO A FAILURE
OF HOMEOSTASIS: HEART DISEASE
LIPIDS THAT ARE
SOLID ARE
CALLED FAT
LIPIDS THAT ARE
LIQUID ARE
CALLED OIL
Types of fats
Saturated
Fats
Unsaturated
Fats
Type of bonds
Consist of SINGLE
bond
Consist of at least 1
DOUBLE bond
Recommended
consumption
Not more than
Not more than
10% of total
30% of total
calories per day calories per day
Health Effects
Excessive consumption
is not good because of
their association with
atherosclerosis and heart
diseases.
Unsaturated fats are
considered good to eat if
you are watching your
cholesterol. Also high in
antioxidants.
Final Summary
1.
How can determine a lipid by
chemical formula?
Greater than 2:1 ratio
2.
How can we identify a
carbohydrate by name?
-OSE ending
3.
What is the usual structural shape
of a carbohydrate molecule?
Ring shaped
What substance could be
represented by the letter X in
the diagram below?
1.
2.
3.
4.
carbohydrates
ozone
carbon dioxide
water
Organic compounds, such as
proteins and starches, are too
A to diffuse into cells. Proteins
are digested into B and
starches are digested into C.
1.
2.
3.
4.
A-large, B-simple sugars, C-amino acids
A-small, B-simple sugars, C-amino acids
A-large, B-amino acids, C-simple sugars
A-small, B-amino acids, C-simple sugars
There are 20 different sorts of
amino acid, each with slightly
different properties
Proteins are made up of chains of amino
acids, and are often folded up into a ball
shape.
An 'average' protein has about 250 amino acids in its chain. How
many different combinations are there of 250 amino acids?
Although there are billions and billions of possible combinations,
actually there are less than 100,000 used in the human body
according to the best estimates of the scientists.
•Structural component
(most abundant organic material in the cell)
•Cell communication (hormones)
•Growth and repair
•Control rate of chemical reactions
enzymesenzymes)
•Immune defense (antibodies)
•Energy source