What molecules make up living things

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Transcript What molecules make up living things

What molecules make up
living things?
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
What is an organic molecule?
• Must contain the element _______
• Found in living organisms
• Some organic molecules contain
_________ and _________
• Some contain nitrogen (only_______)
What is an inorganic molecule?
• Any molecule that is not organic is
_________
•
Does not contain ________
– Exception is ____ doesn’t contain H
LIVING THINGS CONTAIN BOTH ORGANIC
AND INORGANIC MOLECULES
4 Kinds of Organic Compounds
•
•
•
•
__________
__________
__________
__________
THESE MOLECULES CAN ALSO BE CALLED
___________________
_____= BIG , MOLECULES= DIFFERENT
How do carbohydrates look?
• ____ shaped
• Contains C,H,O
Carbohydrate Scientific Name
• Monosaccharide is the monomer (building block)
name
Mono=one monosaccharide(single carb) glucose
• Monosaccharides can join together to form…
Di= two disaccharide (double sugar)
glucose+ glucose= maltose
glucose +fructose= sucrose
glucose+ galactose= lactose
Poly more than two (polysaccharide)
Examples of Carbohydrates
• Monosaccharides
– Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose
• Dissacharides
– sucrose, lactose, maltose
• Polysaccharides
– Starch, cellulose, chitin, glycogen
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates- Biological
Function and Features
• Main source of usable ______ for organisms
• Used in the presence of oxygen to generate cellular
energy (ATP)= cellular respiration
• Carbohydrates make up part of our cell membrane
(hydrophobic)
• Sweet in flavor
– ______ is an important complex carbohydrate made
from glucose
– _________ is a carbohydrate that make up plant
cell walls raw veggies are crunchy because you are
eating the cell wall
– We store carbohydrates in the liver in a form called
GLYCOGEN
Carbohydrate Chain on Outside
of cell membrane
How do living things obtain
these carbohydrates?
• Food that they eat
– Grains and plants
How are these molecules made and
biochemically stored in organisms? Dehydration
Synthesis (Condensation)
How does condensation occur?
• One molecule of
water is lost for every
monosaccharide
molecules that come
together.
• Two molecules are
then covalently
bonded.
• Can continue to form
long chains called
polymers
How do organisms break large
carbohydrates for usage?
• Hydrolysis
• Using water to split di- and polysaccharides in order to form
monosaccharides (glucose)
• The monosaccharides can then be used
by cell to generate cell energy (ATP)
Hydrolysis
Animation
• http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat
/dehydrat.html
Lipids
• Also known as ____ or ____
– Fat: solid at room temperature
– Oil: liquid at room temp
Monomer building blocks of two parts: Glycerol
and 3 fatty acids
Forming a lipid molecule
3 fatty acids molecules
1 glycerol
Process used to form a lipid
molecule
• ___________ (Dehydration Synthesis)
• 3 Water molecules are drawn out to form
one lipid molecule
• Forms a triglyceride molecule
Lipid formation animation
• http://nutrition.jbpub.com/resources/animat
ions.cfm?id=10&debug=0
One Lipid molecule
SHAPED LIKE A LETTER E
Biological Function
• Lipids chiefly function in ______ storage, protection,
and ________ in living things
• A main component of cell membranes
– Fats: found in animals
– Oils: found in animals and plants.
Waxes: found in plants
solid at room temp.
– ________: contain fat compounds ( biological
hormones, cholesterol)
Ways to Recognize a Lipid
• 3 Fatty acid chains
• Shaped like a letter E
• Large and long
molecule
Types of lipids (fats)
• Unsaturated lipid (fats):
– the fatty acid component contains C bonded
to C using a double bond or a triple bond
Types of lipids (fats)
• Polyunsaturated Lipids
These lipids have more than one double or
triple bond in their fatty acid tails
• Saturated lipids (fats): all carbon in the
fatty acid chains are single bonded
What is a protein?
• _______ are organic molecules that play
an important role in
•
•
•
•
_____ and _____ of cells
Can be used for _____
Helps to keep a stable body temperature(_________)
Growth and repair and support of muscle tissue, hair,
skin, nails (ex. Keratin and collagen)
• Carry out genetic _______ from the nucleus (in ___)
• Helps to speed up biochemical reactions (_______)
• Fighting off infections (antibodies)
Composition of Proteins
• Monomer: _______ _____
• 3 Parts to an amino acid: Amino _____, __
side chain, _______ acid group
How do amino acids come
together?
• ____________ ________ (condensation)
• Results in a _________ BOND
How do amino acids come together
How do amino acids form proteins? Condensation/
Dehydration Synthesis
• Forms a _______ ______ when amino
acids combine
• 2 a.a. coming together= __PEPTIDE
• 3 or more a.a. coming together =
____PEPTIDE
• 50-3000 a.a. linked together considered a
PROTEIN
Animation- Protein
• http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/dehydrat
/dehydrat.html
How can proteins change?
• http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/a
nimations/content/proteinstructure.html
What are nucleic acids?
• Compounds that contain ________ and
_________ in addition to other organic
elements C,O,H
• Found in ___________ material in the
form of ____ or ____
DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid
• Contains the genetic hereditary code that
makes each of us different. Our genetic
“blueprint”
What is RNA?
• RNA= _________ _____
• RNA is _______ stranded
• Controls genetic messages of the cell to
form ________ for the cell.(takes place in
________)
Monomer for Nucleic Acids
• Arranged as repeating NUCLEOTIDES
RNA Picture