Transcript Plasma Membrane
How do organisms keep things “just right”? How is the plasma membrane like the border between two countries? Just like countries regulate who get in and who goes out, our cells must do the same thing? Get an iPad from the cart and a copy of the “Cell Membrane Web Quest” Use the information in the web quest and the web links (they are also located at the bottom of todays biology page) to complete the activity in your biology notebook. The plasma membrane helps the cell maintain homeostasis by regulating what goes in and out of the cell Carbohydrate chains Cholesterol Membrane proteins Cytoplasm You can think of the plasma membrane like a “plastic bag with tiny wholes” because . . . The bag holds all of the cell pieces and fluids inside the cell and keeps any nasty things outside the cell. The holes are there to let some things move in and out of the cell. Phospholipids Proteins The cell membrane is not a solid structure. It is made of millions of smaller molecules that create a flexible and porous container. Proteins and phospholipids make up most of the membrane structure. The fluid mosaic model shows you that phospholipid molecules are shaped with a head and a tail region. Click the membrane to view a YouTube video of the fluid mosaic model The head section of the molecule likes water (hydrophilic) while the tail does not (hydrophobic). Because the tails want to avoid water, they tend to stick to each other and let the heads face the watery (aqueous) areas inside and outside of the cell. The two surfaces of molecules create the lipid bilayer. You will find thousands (millions?) of proteins throughout the cell membrane. Some are just on the inside of the cell and some on the outside. A special few cross the cell membrane. Each type of protein has a specific purpose. There are also embedded proteins in the other membranes for cell organelles. Membrane proteins There are two types of proteins in the cell membrane - peripheral proteins and integral proteins. Integral membrane proteins are permanently connected to the cell membrane. They have large sections embedded in the hydrophobic (middle) layer of the membrane. Peripheral proteins are not bonded as strongly to the membrane. They may just sit on the surface of the membrane, anchored with a few hydrogen (H) bonds. Integral proteins are the hard workers of the cell membrane. Some integral proteins cross the membrane and act as pathways for ions and molecules. Some of the ion movement may not require work (passive transport), but other processes require lot of energy and pumping action (active transport). When you look at the whole membrane, there are very few integral proteins when compared to the number of peripheral ones. a Substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and steroids easily diffuse across the cells membrane . . . . . . because the cell membrane is mostly lipids, only lipid soluble molecules (things that can dissolve in lipids) are able to easily pass through Glucose, amino acids, ions and water need the help of various proteins for transport across the membrane. Because they are soluble (dissolve) in water, not lipids.