Jihočeská univerzita v Českých Budějovicích
Dairy and Beef
Teacher: Prof. Doc., Ing. Čermák Bohuslav, CSc.
Student: Ing. Ciobotaru Oana
Ruminant livestock include cattle,
sheep, and goats. Ruminants are
hoofed mammals that have a
unique digestive system that
allows them to better use energy
from fibrous plant material than
Nutrients for Cattle
The main components of food are water
and dry matter. The dry matter
consists of organic material and
Animals require energy for maintenance,
growth, work and for the production of milk and
wool. Feeds are evaluated in terms of the
amount of energy an animal can obtain from
them. The digestible energy (DE) is the gross
(total) amount of energy in the hay and grain
fed an animal less the amount lost in the feces.
Energy is usually reported in megacalories
(Mcal) per kilogram.
Proteins are composed of amino acids, which
contain carbohydrates, nitrogen and sometimes
sulphur. Ten amino acids are essential to
monogastrics, whereas ruminants only need a source
of nitrogen, or a poor quality protein, from which the
microbes in the rumen can then construct the essential
amino acids. Protein is absolutely essential for growth,
reproduction and maintenance in monogastrics and
ruminants. Mature animals require less protein on the
basis of percentage of the feed offered than young
ones. Excess protein is utilized as an energy source.
The major minerals in cattle nutrition are
calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine,
magnesium and potassium. They are
required at comparatively high levels
described as percent of diet or grams per
These organic compounds are required
in minute amounts by the body. They are
essential to metabolism, and some must
be supplied in the feed of ruminants.
The cow is our basic production unit and most
important employee of the beef enterprise.
To get the most out our production unit, let’s
review the job expectations and responsibilities the
cow has to fulfill if she wants to stick around. Our
expectations of our bovine employees are to
maintain her bodyweight-body condition, deliver a
live calf, start the rebreeding process promptly, get
pregnant, maintain her pregnancy, and nurse the
calf that is already on her side until weaning.
That’s quite a load of tasks for one cow to
Energy Concentrates (Grains and ByProduct Feeds)
Lactation cycle phases with corresponding changes
in milk production, milk fat percentage, milk protein
percentage,DM intake, and body weight.
“Feeding the dairy cow” .Chamberlain, A. T.; Wilkinson, J. M. 1996 pp. vi + 241 pp. ISBN 0948-617322 Record Number 19960403882
“A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow “F.J.
Mulligan, L. O’Gradya, D.A. Riceb, M.L. Dohertya
T a y l o r , G. E. T., M i c h i g a n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , Q u a r t e
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u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 105 (1930).
P h i l l i p s , P . H., H a r t , E. B., a n d B o h s t e d t , G., Wi s c o n s i n A g r i c u l t u r
a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n 123 (1934).
Dairy cattle feeding and management. HENDERSON, H. O; REAVES, P. M. West Virginia Univ.,
Morganstown, and Virginia Polytech. Inst., Blacksburg.Record Number 19540101857
Complete diets for cattle and sheep. Owen, J. B. Univ. Coll. of N. Wales, Bangor, UK. 1979 pp.
0-85236-102-5 Record Number 19810465358.
Pop, I.M., Halga, P., Avarvarei Teona, 2006 – Nutriţia şi alimentaţia animalelor, Vol.1,2,3, Editura
Halga, P., Pop, I.M., Teona Avarvarei, Viorica Popa, 2005 – Nutriţie şi alimentaţie animală, Editura
Jurubescu V., 1994 – Alimentaţia bovinelor, ovinelor şi caprinelor, INRA Paris
Pop, I.M., 2006 – Aditivi furajeri, Editura TipoMoldova, Iaşi;
Pop, I.M., 2002 – Aditivi furajeri, Editura PIM, Iaşi;
Stoica, I., Liliana Stoica, 2001- Bazele nutriţiei şi alimentaţiei animalelor, Editura Coral Sanivet,
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