Organic Compounds Overview - Kenwood Academy High School

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Transcript Organic Compounds Overview - Kenwood Academy High School

Organic Compounds
Overview
a.k.a. Biomolecules Overview
Basics
• Organic compounds contain carbon (C) and
hydrogen (H)
• In living things, they are also called
“biomolecules.”
• 4 main types:
–
–
–
–
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates (polymers)
• Monomers (building blocks)
=monosaccharides
=Single sugars
Ex) glucose, fructose, ribose
• 2 monosaccharides make a disaccharide.
(ex. sucrose, lactose)
• 3+ make a polysaccharide (ex. starch)
Chemical Makeup
• Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen
(O) in a 1:2:1 ratio
• Standard chemical formula (for
monosaccharides): CxH2xOx
• Ex) Glucose=C6H12O6
Functions
• Short term energy storage
– Raw fuel for cellular respiration
• Structure (in plants’ cell walls, in
animals=chitin (exoskeletons)
Examples
• In animals:
– Glucose
– Glycogen (a polysaccharide that provides longer
energy storage.)
– Chitin (compound in exoskeletons)
• In plants:
– Glucose & Fructose
– Starch
– Cellulose (in cell walls)
Other info:
• Smaller molecules are more soluble in
water than larger ones.
• Deoxyribose & ribose are sugars in
nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)
Proteins (polymers)
• Building blocks
=amino acids (20)
• 12 amino acids can be produced by the
body.
• 8 must be obtained from food (essential
amino acids)
• Amino acid chain=polypeptide
Chemical Makeup
• Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
• All have an amino group (NH2)
• Complex!
Structure (see p. 45)
• Have 3-dimensional structure
• 4 levels:
– Primary (single chain)
– Secondary (alpha helix or pleated sheet)
– Tertiary (globular or fibrous) caused by
hydrophobic/hydrophillic interactions or by
disulfide bonds
– Quaternary (2 or more polypeptides fit
together)
Functions
•
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•
•
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•
•
Structural (hair, ligaments)
Contractile (muscles)
Enzymes
Defensive (immune system)
Signal (coordinate body functions)
Receptor (on cell membranes)
Transport (hemoglobin carries oxygen)
Lipids (polymers)
• Monomers (building blocks)
=1 glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains
• They are hydrophobic (water-”fearing”)
Chemical makeup
• Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
• Glycerol is an alcohol w/ 3 -OH groups.
• Fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain with a
-COOH group
Lipids-Examples & Functions
• Fat (long term energy storage,
insulation, cushioning)
• Phospholipids (cell membranes)--have
2 fatty acids + phosphate group (PO4)
• Cholesterol (animal cell membranes,
starting point for other steroids, incl. sex
hormones)
More about fats
• Saturated fats
– solid at room temperature
– From animals
– Contain the maximum # of hydrogens (i.e. no
double bonds)
• Unsaturated fats
– Liquid at room temperature
– From plants
– Contain less than the max. # of H (due to double
bonds.)
Nucleic Acids (polymer)
• Monomers (building blocks)=
Nucleotides
• Nucleotide=
– 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)
– Phosphate group
– Nitrogenous base (A, C, T (or U), G)
Nitrogenous Bases
•
•
•
•
•
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A=Adenine
T=Thymine
U=Uracil
C=Cytosine
G=Guanine
Pairing:
– A & T, C & G (in DNA)
– A & U, C & G (in RNA)
2 types of nucleic acids
• DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
– Form genes, which code for proteins
(function)
– Double stranded (double helix)
– A, C, T, G
• RNA (ribonucleic acid)
– Used to help make proteins (function)
– Single helix
– A, C, U, G