Chapter 3 – Carbon Compounds

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Transcript Chapter 3 – Carbon Compounds

Chapter 3 Section 1
– Carbon Compounds
Section 1 Notes
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Standards
★ 1.2-Distinguish among the structure and function of the
four major organic macromolecules found in living things.
• You should be able to:
• Describe proteins, carbohydrates, lipids
and nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) by writing
about:
– what foods contain them.
– drawing their organic molecules.
– how they function in the body (what they do in
the body to help it work)
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Organic Compounds
• Carbon forms the “skeleton” of most
molecules in living things.
• Carbon has 4 electrons that will bond to 4
other electrons from other elements. This
allows it to make lots of combinations.
• ORGANIC COMPOUNDS are made primarily
from carbon atoms. They are found in things
that were once living or are now living.
– Fossil fuels are organic compounds – they are
decayed trees, algaes in ponds, swamp plants
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Carbon molecule names
• A carbon molecule made of one unit is
called a MONOMER
• A carbon molecule made of more than one
unit is called a POLYMER.
• Large polymers are called
MACROMOLECULES.
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WORDS YOU MUST LEARN
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MONO means “one”.
POLY means “many”.
HYDRO means “water”.
LYSIS means “to break apart”.
TRI means “three”.
DI means “two”
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Quick review
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1. What is special about the carbon atom?
2. What organisms contain carbon?
3. What does the prefix “di” mean?
4. What does the prefix “tri” mean?
5. A polyatomic molecule would have how
many atoms?
• 6. A hydroelectric dam would get electricity
from what source?
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Drawing organic molecules
• Organic molecules are drawn with lines
representing the hydrogen bonds that link
the electrons together.
• Sometimes there are two lines because
there are two electrons that bond together
in each atom. Oxygen (O2) is an example.
These are called double bonds.
• It can share three bonds as well. These
are triple bonds.
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Pay attention to the
variety of shapes the
carbon atoms can
create because of the
4 electrons
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Atoms in groups
• Organic compounds are groups of atoms in
chains.
• These groups are called FUNCTIONAL
GROUPS.
• The atoms that are in the chain determine
how the chain attaches to others. (their
Function!)
• Functional groups control the chemical
reactions in cells because they can only
bond (attach) in certain ways.
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Functional groups
phosphate
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Hydroxyl
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Carbonyl
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Amino
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Phosphate
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Carboxyl
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5 functional groups
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Hydroxl
Carboxl
Amino
Phosphate
Carbonyl
YOU MUST KNOW THESE BY SIGHT>
MAKE FLASHCARDS TO STUDY pg. 52
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Quick check
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Draw
1. Carboxyl
2. Carbonyl
3. Phosphate
4. Hydroxyl
5. Amino
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Identify – the macromolecule
called a carbohydrate
• Carbohydrates have which atoms in them?
C
H
O
(Carbon)
(Hydrogen)
(Oxygen)
★EXAMPLES in FOOD: glucose, fructose,
sucrose, lactose, galactose
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A New Name for Sugar: Saccharide
★EXAMPLES in FOOD: glucose, fructose,
sucrose, lactose, galactose
–THESE ARE KNOWN AS
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SACCHARIDES
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Glucose has a basic one ring
structure
It has 6 sides
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"ONE SUGAR"
• WHAT would "ONE SUGAR" be called in
biology????????
- The word for one is ________.
- The word for sugar is___________.
- So the new word for one sugar is
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______________________________.
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Fructose is the other "simple",
one ring sugar
It has 5 sides
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What kind of sugar is fructose?
• Hint: it has ONE SUGAR
• MONOSACCHARIDE
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Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
This is a disaccharide
di = two
Sucrose
See how two sugars are attached?
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Review
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How do we draw them?
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These are what molecules?
What is different? Same?
Isomers of glucose
Isomers of fructose
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ISOMERS
• Glucose, Fructose and Galactose are the
THREE MONOSACCHARIDE SUGARS.
• Monosaccharide sugars are also called
“simple sugars”.
• The monosaccharide sugars have a
special property: Their CHO atoms always
make molecules with numerical ratios of
1:2:1 Example: C6H12O6, C12H24O12
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ISOMERS
• Even though the monosaccharides are
different shapes, they still have the same
number of CHO molecules.
• They are simply arranged differently.
• ISOMERS are compounds with the same
chemical formula, but a different chemical
stucture.
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Review
• What is an isomer?
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Review: What is this?
First – identify the molecule
sugar
Now, it is a polymer – long chains
Your choices: a. lipid or b. cellulose
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How do you make polymers?
✓You put monomers together, of course!
✓They are attached by hydrogen bonds in a
chemical reaction called a CONDENSATION
REACTION.
✓The reason it is called this is because a water
molecule is released when the bond is formed
(and water formation is called condensation).
✓This happens because one of the monomers
will release a H and one will release an OH to
form the bond between them.
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How do you break a polymer apart?
★Water is added to a polymer and the polar
water will cause the bonds to break.
★Adding water is called HYDROLYSIS.
★The polar water pulls apart with the broken
monomers.
★One pulled apart monomer takes the H and
the other one takes the H.
★That leaves monomers.
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Breaking and making bonds is
critical for survival
✴The breaking of bonds is how you get your
body heat.
✴The breaking of bonds is how you get the
energy you use to function every second of
your life.
✴The making of bonds must be done in
order for them to be broken!
✴Breaking the bonds releases energy.
✴Making bonds stores the energy.
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ATP is the ENERGY Molecule
• ATP = adenosine triphosphate
• How many phosphate groups does it have?
• The bonds between the functional groups BREAK
and release energy.
• ATP changes to ADP then to ATP then to ADP etc.
• ADP is adenosine diphosphate.
• When the bonds break, energy is released.
• When the bonds re-assemble, energy is used. So
more energy must be made than used at all times.
• ENERGY IS STORED IN UNBROKEN BONDS
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Review
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What does ADP stand for?
How many phosphate groups are in it?
How does ATP create energy?
How does ATP regain it energy?
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HW
• Page 54
• 1,2,3,6,10
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