PIG Excretion - Mrs Miller's Blog | Science Revision

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Transcript PIG Excretion - Mrs Miller's Blog | Science Revision

PIG Excretion
What are the cells lining the Proximal
convoluted tubule called? (1)
What is are the cells lining the
Proximal convoluted tubule called?
• Epithelial cells
How are substances reabsorbed in the
Proximal convoluted tubule? (5)
How are substances reabsorbed in the
Proximal convoluted tubule?
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Selective reabsorption
Of glucose and amino acids
By co-transporter proteins
Microvilli provide a large surface area for
uptake
• Water moves out by osmosis
How is pressure maintained in the
glomerulus? (2)
How is pressure maintained in the
glomerulus?
• Afferent arteriole is wider than the efferent
arteriole leading to
• High hydrostatic pressure in glomerulus
Why would happen if someone ate
loads of protein in their diet? (4)
Why would happen if someone ate
loads of protein in their diet?
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More urea produced
More protein broken into amino acids
Increased deamination
More ammonia formed
More ammonia converted to urea
Called the ornithine cycle (ornithine is a name
for one of the products and a catalyst that
helps in this process)
Why do you need anti-coagulant in
dialysis? (2)
Why do you need anti-coagulant in
dialysis?
• So that clots don’t form
• While blood is in the machine
Why is no anti-coagulant added to the
blood at the end of dialysis? (1)
Why is no anti-coagulant added to the
blood at the end of dialysis?
• So blood can clot normally after treatment
How do molecules and ions move from
the blood into the dialysis fluid? (1)
How do molecules and ions move from
the blood into the dialysis fluid?
• diffusion
Why does the blood flow in the opposite
direction of the dialysis fluid in the machine? (2)
Why does the blood flow in the opposite
direction of the dialysis fluid in the machine?
• Maintain a diffusion gradient
• Allowing maximum removal of waste
Describe the barrier between the
glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule? (3)
Describe the barrier between the
glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule?
• Endothelium: narrow gaps for plasma to pass
through
• Basement membrane: collagen fibre and
glycoprotein mesh
• Podocytes: epithelial cells with major
processes (finger like projections) and gaps o
fluid can pass through
What is filtered out of the blood? (5)
What is filtered out of the blood?
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Water
Amino acids
Glucose
Urea
Inorganic ions
How is the permeability of the
collecting duct controlled? (5)
How is the permeability of the
collecting duct controlled?
• Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus lose water by
osmosis
• They shrink and release ADH
• ADH binds to receptors in cells of collecting
duct
• Aquaporins fuse with cell membrane
• More water is reabsorbed
What is the name for the process where fluid passes from
the glomerulus into the renal tubule? (1)
What is the name for the process where fluid
passes from the glomerulus into the renal tubule?
• ultrafiltration
What is the product of glycolysis? (1)
What is the product of glycolysis
• pyruvate
Name 2 co-enzymes involved in
respiration (2)
Name 2 co-enzymes involved in
respiration
• NAD and FAD
What are the 4 stages of respiration? (4)
What are the 4 stages of respiration?
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Glycolysis
Link reaction
Krebs cycle
Electron transport chain (oxidative
phosphorylation)
Where do the 4 stages of respiration
take place? (4)
Where do the 4 stages of respiration
take place?
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Glycolysis- cytoplasm
Link reaction- mitochondrial matrix
Krebs cycle- mitochondrial matrix
Electron transport chain- across inner
mitochondrial membrane