BIOCHEMISTRY 2.1

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Transcript BIOCHEMISTRY 2.1

ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS
Objectives
•
Compare organic versus inorganic compounds.
•
Describe the unique properties of carbon including formation of 4 covalent bonds,
polymerization, carbon chains, and introduce carbon cycle. (IPC TEKS 7D)
•
Describe the basic structure and function of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
•
Identify and describe the 4 types of biochemical molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids,
and nucleic acids) and their functions in biological systems—CHO focus on glucose
polymers including chitin, starch, cellulose, glycogen; Proteins intro enzymes and give
common examples including hemoglobin, antibodies, collagen, muscle fibers, hair, nails, and
cell fibers actin and myosin; Nucleic acids focus on DNA structure and intro replication;
Lipids intro membranes as transition to next unit on Cell structure and transport. (TEK 9A)
BIOCHEMISTRY
• ALL LIVING THINGS ARE COMPOSED OF
THE FOLLOWING BASIC ELEMENTS
•CARBON
•HYDROGEN
•NITROGEN
•OXYGEN
•PHOSPHORUS
•SULFUR
aka “CHNOPS”
• A MOLECULE CONTAINING CARBON IS
CALLED AN ORGANIC MOLECULE (except CO,
CO2)
Unique Properties of Carbon
• Forms 4 covalent bonds (because it has 4
valence electrons that it shares with
another bonding atom)
• Polymerization—the process by which a
polymer is formed by linking monomers
together through condensation synthesis
• Carbon chains are formed.
• Carbon Cycle
Carbon
Cycle
• Plants create
glucose (a
carbon
compound)
during
photosynthesis
and give off
oxygen.
• O2 is used to
oxidize organic
molecules in
Respiration,
CO2 is
biproduct that
is returned to
the
atmosphere
Carbon
Cycle
• Marine
organisms use
CO2 to make
CaCO3 shells,
then die and
turn into
limestone that
erodes and
enters back
into the cycle
or then fossil
fuels are
formed,
produced,
then burned
and returned
to the
atmosphere
through
combustion.
Carbon Cycle
THERE ARE 4 BASIC CARBON COMPOUNDS IN
ALL LIVING THINGS: (aka BIOCHEMICAL
Molecules or ORGANIC Molecules/Compounds)
1. CARBOHYDRATES
2. LIPIDS
3. PROTEINS
4. NUCLEIC ACIDS
CARBOHYDRATES
•INCLUDE SUGARS, STARCHES, & CELLULOSE
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PROVIDES ENERGY FOR ORGANISMS
4 Calories/gram
CHO in 1:2:1 ratio
3 Types:
1. Monosaccharides
2. Disaccharide
3. Polysaccharide
Monomer/subunit = monosaccharide.
Most end in –ose
Examples of Carbohydrate Types
• Monosaccharides (single sugars)
– Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
• Disaccharides (double sugars)
– Sucrose (table sugar) = 1 glucose + 1 fructose
– Maltose (malt sugar) = 1 glucose + 1 glucose
– Lactose (milk sugar) = 1 glucose + 1 galactose
• Polysaccharides (many sugars)
– Starch
– Glycogen
– Cellulose
Glucose a Monosaccharide
–Glucose: C6H12O6.
•Main product of photosynthesis
•Starting material for cellular
respiration—must be converted into
the form our cells can use (“ATP”)
•Basic form of “fuel” in living things
•Soluble and transported by body fluids
to all cells, where is it METABOLIZED
to release energy.
Polysaccharides: complex carbs
• Formed by linking many monosaccharides
• Starches: hundreds of glucose units linked
together
– Storage for carbohydrates in PLANTS
• Glycogen: stored in human liver
– Thousands of glucose units linked differently than
starches in ANIMALS
• Cellulose: structural carbohydrate (for
SUPPORT)
– Glucose units, but cannot be released from one
another except for a few species of organisms
» Wood
» Cell walls of plants
***Humans CANNOT digest cellulose!***
LIPIDS
INCLUDE FATS, OILS, WAXES, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, STEROIDS,
CHLOROPHYLL.; made of CHO
•CARBOHYDRATES MAY BE CONVERTED INTO LIPIDS
FOR LONG-TERM ENERGY STORAGE.
Monomer/Subunit: 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids “Fat E”
9 Calories/gram
•FATS -ACT AS INSULATORS
•WAXES HELP PLANTS CONSERVE WATER
•OILS - MAKE SOME BIRDS’ FEATHERS WATERPROOF
•PHOSPHOLIPIDS – MAIN COMPONENT OF CELL
MEMBRANE
nonpolar molecules so they are not soluble in water
Lipids (CHO) fats come in two structures.
Saturated fats—no double bonds between Carbons, Ex. animal fats,
solid at room temperature
Unsaturated fats—some double bonded C, Ex. plant fats & oils, liquids
at room temperature
Saturated:
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
Unsaturated
C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C
PROTEINS
•Include meat, fish, nuts; provide 4 Cal/gram
•Most complex organic molecules
•made of CHON
Some also contain S, P, Fe, or Cu
•COMPOSED OF SMALLER
MOLECULES/SUBUNITS CALLED AMINO
ACIDS
•There are 20 Amino Acids (or AAs)
•Each AA is made of
•An Amine group (NH2)
•MAKE UP OVER
•A Carboxyl group (-COOH)
HALF THE DRY
•A Radical group (-R)
WEIGHT OF
ORGANISMS
Protein Formation
• Dehydration synthesis
–Amino acids form a protein by
removal of water
–Links are called peptide bonds and
small proteins called peptides; larger
are polypeptides
Protein Functions
• enzymes that promote chemical reactions
• structural functions such as collagen in
skin, muscle (actin & myosin), ligaments,
tendons, and bones
• proteins found in muscles and hair
• antibodies are also proteins
• hemoglobin is a protein that carries
oxygen in blood
NUCLEIC ACIDS
•LARGE COMPLEX MOLECULES
CONTAINING HEREDITY MATERIAL
Made of Nucleotides (sugar, phosphate
group, & nitrogen base)
1. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID -D N A
(deoxyribose sugar)
2. RIBONUCLEIC ACID- R N A (ribose sugar)
•D N A CARRIES INSTRUCTIONS THAT
REGULATE CELL ACTIVITIES
•R N A –uses information from DNA to
tell the ribosomes what proteins to make.