The role of Nutrition in addressing NHPA

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Transcript The role of Nutrition in addressing NHPA

The role of Nutrition in
addressing NHPA
NHPA
• The NHPA influenced by nutritional factors
include:
• CVD
• Obesity
• Colorectal cancer
• Osteoporosis
• Diabetes
Cardiovascular
disease
Subtitle Goes Here.
Disease of the blood vessels
• The most common cause of CVD is the
hardening of the arteries called
atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs when
the inner walls of the arteries become narrow
due to the build up of plague.
Protective factors
• Protective nutrients include Omega-3 fatty acids (
found in oily fish), Omega-6 fatty acids ( found in
vegetable oil)and soy protein help to lower LDL
cholesterol
• vitamin E- helps reduce blood cholesterol
• folate- lowers blood amino acids homocysteine which
is linked to CVD , antioxidants- helps reduce fatty
deposits in the blood vessels
• soluble fibre lowers blood cholesterol by binding to
bile acids (which are made from cholesterol) from the
body.
• Phytoestrogens- protect CVDCVD
Nutritional Risk factors
• Consuming saturated and transfatty acids
increases LDL (low density lipoproteins)
cholesterol levels in the blood and blood
pressure
• High sodium and low potassium diet is risk
factor for hypertension
• Diet low in dietary fibre
• What lifestyle risk factors contribute to CVD
Colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer
• Cancers affecting either the colon or rectum
are called colorectal cancer. P
• The colon and rectum are parts of the body’s
digestive system, which remove nutrients
from food and stores waste until it passes out
of the body.
Colorectal cancer
• Most cases of colorectal cancer begin as noncancerous polyps _ grape-like growths on the lining
of the colon and rectum. These polyps can become
cancerous but can be removed before this happens.
• 75% of deaths from colorectal cancers can be
prevented by healthy diet and exercise
• 2003- 9000 Australian
• diagnosed, causing
• 4500 deaths
Colorectal cancer risk nutritional
factors
• Risk nutrients include a high saturated fat intake and
obesity increase risk of colorectal cancer
• Dietary fats should contribute 20-30% of daily energy
intake
• Some evidence that diet high in burnt meat, red or
processed meat may increase risk of colorectal
cancer
• Recommended serve of red meat 90g a day
• Low dietary fibre intake
Colorectal cancer protective
nutritional factors
• high fibre diet- it absorbs water and softens and
bulks u faeces- preventing constipation and therefore
preventing potential cancer causing agents from
sitting in the bowel for long periods
• A diet high in fruit and vegetables-which is high in
antioxidants, Vitamin E, Vitamin C and folate.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
• Is a metabolic disease in which high blood glucose
levels result from defective insulin secretion, insulin
action or both
• Type 1- not diet relate or preventable
• Type 2-diet related, body becomes insulin resistant,
action may be blocked due excess fat cells around
insulin receptor sites, body tries to compensate by
producing more insulin which fluctuates blood glucose
levels, eventually unable to compensate and resulting
in consistently high blood sugars
• Gestational (3-8% of pregnancy) also increase chance of
acquiring type 2 diabetes in later life
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
• Increasing in prevalence- preventable disease
• 69% of diabetics over age of 15 are either
obese or overweight
• Increase weight around chest and stomach
increase risk of diabetes
• Long term effects- heart disease, stroke, kidney
failure, blindness and low limb amputation
Risk nutritional factors
• High GI foods increase risk of type 2 diabetes as
they increase blood glucose rapidly
• Saturated fats increase risk of obesity a
precursor to type 2 diabetes
• Alcohol consumption, as alcohol is high in
kilojoules, alcohol inhibits liver ability to
release glucose into the blood stream causing
hypoglycaemia
Risk factors for obesity
• A high intake of diet high in fat and/or high
GI foods
• High GI can cause higher insulin levels which
can lead to insulin resistance potentially
leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus
• Overconsumption
• Low fibre diet
Protective factors
• Consuming low GI foods- slow release energy
also higher nutritional foods
• High fibre diet- feel full for longer
• Consuming low fat diet- less fat stored
What health issues are associated with
obesity
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Osteoarthritis
Sleep apnoea
High cholesterol
High blood pressure
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Coronary heart disease
Cancer
Reproductive problems
Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis
• Osteoporosis refers to a progressive degeneration of
the structure, density and strength of the bone. A
decline in bone mass can occur in older adults,
causing osteoporosis.
• In women this can occur during menopause due to
changes in the release of oestrogen.
Risk factors
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Low calcium and vitamin D intake
High salt intake
High caffeine intake
High alcohol intake
Menopause- oestrogen plays a role in
maintaining bone density
Protective factors
• Adequate Vit D intake-Vitamin D is not a
structural component of bone but is required
for the absorption and deposition of calcium
• Calcium intake- Calcium and Phosphorus,
responsible for the ossification (hardening) of
hard tissue
• Weight bearing exercise
• Activity pg 142,
• Homework chapter review