The Renaissance: Rise of the Italian City

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Transcript The Renaissance: Rise of the Italian City

The Renaissance:
Rise of the Italian City-State
Renaissance: General
Characteristics
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“rebirth”, or reawakening. Specifically…
…Signals European interest in the “classical”
past.
Occurred mainly in Italy (late 13th C to early
17thC)
An urban movement; rural peasants hardly felt
its effects
Most events and changes were limited to the
rich, elite of society.
Renaissance: Roots of Modernity?
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As of yet, we are not clear what modernity is,
substantially, though we have some clues.
We know , as a whole, it signals a departure
from the past
The past we are concerned with is Medieval
institutions and ideas
Feudal chains,
were "loosening"
in Italian citystates.
Textbook tells us
these city states
were a 'bridge'—to
what?
How would this
lead to a
weakening of
feudal structure in
the Italian city
states?
Feudal Social Classes,
Changes and Challenges
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SECULAR
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KING
NOBLES
KNIGHTS
RELIGIOUS
Unlike the
Barons,
Merchant $$
derived
autonomously
Increasing
control of city MERCHANTS
states by
PROFESSIONALSMerchant rulers also
Merchant
challenged Papal
rulers, leads
CRAFTSMEN supremacy, by taking
to new
religious matters into
political ideas PEASANTS their own hands:
freemen
particularly religious
i.e. republics
serfs
architecture and
/dictatorships
sculpture
& diplomacy
POPE
CARDINALS
BISHOPS
ABBOTS
PRIESTS
MONKS
NUNS
PEASANTS
lay brothers and sisters
serfs
Lorenzo de Medici of
Florence
Cossimo de Medici of
Florence
Tomb of Lorenzo de Medici
Plazzo Vecchio, Florence
Medici court
architecture,
showcasing family line
Sociological & Economic impact of
the city state
KING
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NOBLES
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KNIGHTS
MERCHANTS
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PROFESSIONALS
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CRAFTSMEN
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PEASANTS
freemen
serfs
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Economy, urban not rural (so, not
agriculturally based)
Money starts flowing into cities creating
changes in class structures
Modern financial & banking techniques
develop (bookkeeping, loans, trade
economies)
Competition between city states, propels
the Merchant rulers to become patrons of
arts and crafts, to beautify city
$$ Flowed, too, to Craftsmen. Inspiring
innovation and creativity
City also promised some freedom for serfs
who moved to cities
Increasingly, individualism emphasized
Increasingly, the notion of freedom from
constraints…
Cultural Outcomes: Symbolism
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Effect of growing autonomy, leads to a
dramatic shift in popular symbolism
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The ideal figure of the past—The
Chivalric Knight —is replaced by….
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The “Renaissance Man”
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Values—to be knowledgeable about :
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the world
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Art and architecture / to have
refined taste
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Classical sources—literature, art
and science
Crystallized in Castiglione’s, The
Courtier
Humanism
Changing political, social and cultural ideals lead to…
Humanism
 Derived from the Latin humanitas
 Viewed the classics (literature, philosophy and art) as
their inspiration
 Stressed living in and understanding this world,
human dignity, and responsible citizenship
 Saw knowledge as a guide to personal and political
conduct
Humanist Personalities
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Petrarch & Mirandola pg 18
Machiavelli pg 19-20
Castiglione pgs 22-23
Savonarola pgs 23 -24
More pgs 24 – 25
Erasmus pgs 18 & 25 -26