Protein Synthesis - Simon Technology

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Transcript Protein Synthesis - Simon Technology

Protein Synthesis
Part II. Translation
Review-What is the central dogma?
The central dogma describes the flow of
information from DNA to RNA to proteins.
Review-What is the process of
Transcription?
Occurs in nucleus
RNA polymerase binds to DNA and
separates strands of DNA
RNA polymerase uses 1 strand of DNA as
a template to make a strand of RNA
(Uracil) nucleotides
Once the gene is transcribed, the RNA
detaches from the DNA.
(Review)What is RNA’s function in
protein synthesis?
Assembly of amino acids into proteins is
controlled by RNA because RNA is a copy
of gene that is used as a “code” or
instructions for a specific protein.
(Review)Transcription
Hold-up…Think!
Translation means to convert a message
from one language to another.
Spanish-Que pasa?/English-What up
hommie?
Cells translate a RNA message into amino
acid chains (proteins).
Protein Synthesis Analogy
Protein synthesis is like…A Candy Factory
(Review)Protein Synthesis
What is translation?
Takes place at the ribosomes
Process that converts or translates an
mRNA message into a
polypeptide(polypeptides make-up
proteins)
What are codons?
Codon-a three nucleotide sequence that codes
for an amino acid (make-up proteins)
Start codons-signal the start of translation
(methionine)
Stop codons-signal the end of the amino acid
chain
Anticodons-set of three nucleotides in a tRNA
molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA
molecule.
1.)What are the steps in
translation?
mRNA attaches to a ribosome
As each codon of the mRNA moves
through the ribosome, the proper amino
acid is brought into the ribosome and
attached to the polypeptide chain.
2.)What are the steps in
translation?
tRNA matches each amino acid with its
matching codon on the mRNA
The ribosome forms bonds between amino
acids, also breaks bond between tRNA
and amino acid it is carrying
3.)What are the steps of
translation?
Protein continues to grow until the
ribosome reaches a stop codon, then
releases polypeptide chain.
Translation
How does your DNA determine
what you look like at the molecular
level?
Your traits are determined by your DNA
because your DNA has codes/instructions
for your traits called genes. Genes contain
the codes for proteins, which make-up
many structures such as your fingernails,
hemoglobin, muscles, and the color of
your eyes. The process of converting the
instructions for your traits from your genes
into protein molecules is called protein
synthesis.
Summary Questions:
What is produced during transcription?
How is mRNA used during translation?
How does the ribosome “know” where to
start and end translation?
Explain translation in your own words.