Transcript Protein Synthesis - Simon Technology
Protein Synthesis Part II. Translation Review-What is the central dogma? The central dogma describes the flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins. Review-What is the process of Transcription? Occurs in nucleus RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates strands of DNA RNA polymerase uses 1 strand of DNA as a template to make a strand of RNA (Uracil) nucleotides Once the gene is transcribed, the RNA detaches from the DNA. (Review)What is RNA’s function in protein synthesis? Assembly of amino acids into proteins is controlled by RNA because RNA is a copy of gene that is used as a “code” or instructions for a specific protein. (Review)Transcription Hold-up…Think! Translation means to convert a message from one language to another. Spanish-Que pasa?/English-What up hommie? Cells translate a RNA message into amino acid chains (proteins). Protein Synthesis Analogy Protein synthesis is like…A Candy Factory (Review)Protein Synthesis What is translation? Takes place at the ribosomes Process that converts or translates an mRNA message into a polypeptide(polypeptides make-up proteins) What are codons? Codon-a three nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid (make-up proteins) Start codons-signal the start of translation (methionine) Stop codons-signal the end of the amino acid chain Anticodons-set of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA molecule. 1.)What are the steps in translation? mRNA attaches to a ribosome As each codon of the mRNA moves through the ribosome, the proper amino acid is brought into the ribosome and attached to the polypeptide chain. 2.)What are the steps in translation? tRNA matches each amino acid with its matching codon on the mRNA The ribosome forms bonds between amino acids, also breaks bond between tRNA and amino acid it is carrying 3.)What are the steps of translation? Protein continues to grow until the ribosome reaches a stop codon, then releases polypeptide chain. Translation How does your DNA determine what you look like at the molecular level? Your traits are determined by your DNA because your DNA has codes/instructions for your traits called genes. Genes contain the codes for proteins, which make-up many structures such as your fingernails, hemoglobin, muscles, and the color of your eyes. The process of converting the instructions for your traits from your genes into protein molecules is called protein synthesis. Summary Questions: What is produced during transcription? How is mRNA used during translation? How does the ribosome “know” where to start and end translation? Explain translation in your own words.