EOC Review - Dorman Freshman Campus

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Transcript EOC Review - Dorman Freshman Campus

Final Review
Physical Science
1.
1. Protons – positive
2. Neutrons - neutral
3. Electrons - negative
2.
1. Protons – nucleus
2. Neutrons – nucleus
3. Electrons – electron cloud
3.
1. Protons
2. Neutrons
Charge – positive
4.
Protons and neutrons.
Not based on electrons because the
mass of the electron is too small to
count.
5.
Stable isotope – same number of
protons but different number of
neutrons. Does not break down
Unstable isotope – radioactive isotope
used for nuclear weapons, nuclear
power plants, and biomedicine.
Highly radioactive,Unpredictable in
breaking down.
6.
Atomic number
Yes, because the number of protons
never change
7.
Oxidation number – number of
electrons an atom can gain, lose, or
share (based on group #)
O: 2Ba: 2+
Li: 1+
N: 3C: 4+
8.
They have 8 valence electrons and are
stable . They do not need to react
with another group to become
stable.
9.
Atomic number
10 - 12.
• Metals – left of stair step line
• Nonmetals – right of stair step line
• Metalloids – on stair step line
13.
# of valence electrons
Element Atomic
Mass
Atomic
#
# of
protons
# of
# of
electron neutron
s
s
H
1.01
1
1
1
0
He
4.00
2
2
2
2
C
12.01
6
6
6
6
Cl
35.45
17
17
17
19
O
16.00
8
8
8
8
20.
Group 1 has one valence electron and
has to give it away. Group 17 has 7
valence electrons and needs one
more to be stable.
21.
Halogens - Group 17: 1Alkali Metals - Group 1: 1+
Alkaline earth – Group 2: 2+
Nobel Gases – Group 18: 0
22.
Physical properties:
Color, shape, size, odor, melting
point, boiling point, state of
matter, viscosity, density,
solubility
Chemical properties:
Flammability, sensitivity to light,
oxidation, tarnishing, corrosion of
metals
23.
Physical change: Change in a
substance’s size, shape, or state
of matter
Chemical change: A change of one
substance into a different
substance
Do you still have the same
substance or is it a new
substance?
24.
Iron Rusts: Chemical
Ice Melting: Physical
Milk Sours: Chemical
Food is digested: Chemical
Evaporation: Physical
Sugar dissolves in water: Physical
25.
1. Physical
2. Density = mass / volume (d=m/v)
3. D = 30g / 12cm3
d = 2.5 g/cm3
26.
• Organic compounds always contain
carbon and hydrogen
atoms.
27.
Atom: smallest part of an element
that can be identified as that
element.
Molecule: neutral particle that results
from a covalent bond. Can also be
polar or nonpolar.
28.
Element:
Substance that cannot be chemically
broken down into a simpler
substance.
Compound:
Two or more elements chemically
combined.
Differences: Element is by itself where
a compound is two or more
elements.
29.
Compounds are chemically combined
while mixtures are physically
combined.
1. Hetergeneous – unevenly mixed
ex: suspension, salad, chocolate
chip cookie, granite
2. Homogeneous – evenly mixed
ex: soda, vinegar, saltwater
30.
Ionic:
Metal and nonmetal
Covalent:
2 or more nonmetals
Difference:
Ionic – gain and loses electrons
Covalent – share electrons
31.
H and O: H1+ O
H2O
2-
Na and Cl: Na
1+
Na and O: Na
1+
Be and O: Be
2+
Cl
1-
O2O2-
NaCl
Na2O
BeO
32.
• Boiling Point: Covalent - low
• Melting Point: Ionic - high (does not
easily break down)
Covalent – low (comes apart easily)
• Conductivity: Ionic – conducts
electricity; covalent does not
33.
• Stirring
• Temperature
• Pressure
• Surface Area
34.
• Solids – tightly packed
particles vibrating in place
• Liquids – particles are
close, but can move
around each other and are
not in one place
• Gases – particles bounce
off of each other and are
as far apart as possible
35.
• S to L: particles start slipping and
sliding past each other. The bond
holding the particles together is
broken
• L to G: particles move fast
throughout container and are
colliding with one another
36.
• A. Solid
• B. Melting Pt
• C. Liquid
• D. Boiling Pt
• E. Gas
• F. Condensation Pt
• G. Freezing Pt
37.
• Fe + O2
Fe2O3 No, more iron
and oxygen on product side
CH4 + O2
CO2 + H2O
38.
• Exothermic: heat released; reaction
becomes hot
Ex: burning sugar
• Endothermic: heat absorbed;
reaction becomes cold
Ex: ice pack
39
• Mass of a reaction is not created nor
destroyed but conserved.
40
• You have to have equal amounts of
each element on the reactant and
product side of the equation
• This is why the equation must be
BALANCED
Formulas
Reactions
with
metals
pH
Acids
All have Corrodes
metals
H as
first
element
in
formula
0-7
Bases
All have
They can
OH in end but
of formula generally
do not
Above 7
42
• How quick or slow it takes for a
reaction to occur
43. Ways to increase
reaction rate
• Increase temp
• Stir
• Adding a catalysts
• Increasing surface area (break
down particle size)
• Increasing the concentration
28
•Elements and
compounds are both
pure substances
•Elements are made of
one type of atom
•Compounds are made of
two or more types of
atoms
Pg 90-93
•Ionic bond – metal +
nonmetal and electrons
are transferred
•Covalent bond –
nonmetal + nonmetal
and electrons are
shared
Pg 90-93
• Criss-Cross Method
• H and O …H+1
O-2
•
H2O
• Remember – don’t write
the charges, the 1’s, or if
the numbers are the same
-2 and +2
Pg 90-93
•Covalent bonds are
weak: 1. low
melting point 2.
low boiling point 3.
will not conduct
electricity
110-111.
•Temperature – faster
if heated
•Surface area – faster
if more surface area
•Stirring – faster if you
stir it
Pg 110-111
High concentration =
more conductivity,
lower freezing point
Pg 111
•Polar – water is a polar
substance, so if it will
dissolve in water, it is
polar…like vinegar
•Nonpolar – anything that
will not dissolve in water
is nonpolar…like oil
Pg 94
Compounds with a
hydrogen and a
carbon
•Pg 94 (See board)
•Draw the following
hydrocarbons bonded
•C2H6
•C8H18
Pg 96-99
•Polymer is a long chain of
something
•Protein – polymer of
amino acids
•Starch – polymer of sugar
•Example –
•Train – polymer of cars
Pg 96-99
Polymers provide the
nutrients we need for
daily function…we take
in nutrients and our
body breaks them down
and rearranges them
into things we can use.
Pg 96-99
Proteins Carbohydrates – starches and sugars
give us energy
Lipids – fats that
Pg 173
Fe
+
See Board
O2

Fe2O3
Pg 175.
•Exothermic – heat is
given off – temperature
goes up
•Endothermic – heat is
taken in – temperature
goes down
Pg 173
•Matter cannot be
created nor destroyed
•The amount of mass
you started with before
the reaction is the same
after the reaction.
•Ex: burning a log
Pg 173
An equation must be
balanced to exhibit the
above law – in an
unbalanced equation,
there would be mass
being created or
destroyed
•Acids have a sour
taste
•Bases have a bitter
taste and a slippery
texture.
Pg 190-193
•pH is very common in a
grocery store…
•Lemons – pH 2
•Drain cleaner – pH 14
•Apple juice – pH 3
•Soap – pH 10
Pg 169-171
Reaction rate is how
quickly a reaction will
happen
Pg 169-171
You can speed up a
reaction by raising the
temperature, stirring it,
adding catalysts or
enzymes, increasing
surface area, or
increasing the
concentration
Pg 168-169
•Change in color
•Change in temperature
•A precipitate forms (a
solid glob forms at the
bottom)
Acid rain is formed from
the pollution and other
gases emitted from the
environment which is
surrounded by dust and
dirt in clouds….the dust
and dirt fall as rain
bringing with it the
pollution which is
usually acidic
Pg 272-273
d
d
No motion
Constant speed
t
t
v
Constant speed
v
acceleration
t
t
Pg 428-431
Static electricity is
made when two
things rub
together…electrons
jump from one object
to another
Pg 462-465
•Electricity can produce
a magnetic field
•Magnets can make
electricity flow faster
Pg 442-443
•Voltage is how much
electricity CAN flow
•Amperage (current) is
how much actually
DOES flow
Pg 292 - 293
PE =
high
KE =
low
PE = high
KE = low
PE = low KE = high
Pg 296-305 Energy
• Energy is the ability to do
work
• Work is using energy to do
a task
• Power is how fast you do
work
• Efficiency is how well you
used the energy to do the
work
Mechanical Advantage tells you
how well a machine works
MA = resistance force
effort force
Ex. What is the MA of a lever
that does 500N with 50N of
effort?