CO2 would move across a plasma membrane more quickly than

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Transcript CO2 would move across a plasma membrane more quickly than

Match the organelle to the function.
Cell Membrane
Modify, package, and
transport cell materials
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Provide cell with energy
Mitochondria
Contain cell contents, control
cell traffic
Lysosome
Manufacture proteins and plasma
membranes
Golgi body
Digest food molecules
Unsaturated fatty acids keep a membrane
more fluid at lower temperatures.
Which of the following is most likely
true of a protein that cotransports
glucose and sodium ion into the
intestinal cells of an animal?
• a. The sodium ions are moving down their electrochemical
gradient which glucose is moving up.
• b. Glucose entering the cell along its concentration gradient
provides energy for uptake of sodium ions against their
electrochemical gradient.
• c. Sodium ions can move down their electrochemical
gradient through the cotransporter whether or not glucose is
present outside the cell.
• d. The cotransporter can also transport potassium ions.
A cell has the following molecules and
structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes,
plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It
could be a cell from
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A. a single celled prokaryotic organism
B. a mutlicelled eukaryotic organism
C. an animal only
D. any kind of organism
Which is the true statement?
• A. Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves
beginning with CO2 and inorganic nutrients.
• B. Cellular respiration is unique to hetertrophs.
• C. Only heterotrophs have mitochondria.
• D. Heterotrophs require chemical compounds from the
environment.
An organism with a cell wall would most
likely be unable to take in materials
through
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A. diffusion
B. osmosis
C. active transport
D. phagocytosis
When electrons move closer to a more
electronegative atom, the more electronegative
molecule gets _____________ and the less
electronegative molecule is _____________.
Osmosis is the transport of a large organic
molecule into or out of a cell.
What happens to pyruvate in between
glycolysis and the start of the Krebs/citric
acid cycle?
CO2 would move across a plasma
membrane more quickly than glucose and
K+.
Model and explain how lipid molecules
form a phospholipid bilayer.
Which of the following is true of
enzymes?
• A. Enzymes increase the rate of chemical reaction by
lowering activation energy barriers.
• B. Nonprotein cofactors alter the substrate specificity of
enzymes.
• C. Enzyme function is independent of physical and chemical
environmental factors such as pH and temperature.
• D. Enzyme function is increased if the 3-D structure or
conformation of an enzyme is altered.
Large numbers of ribosomes are present
in cells that specialize in producing
which of the following molecules?
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A. lipids
B. carbohydrates
C. nucleic acids
D. proteins
Catabolic pathways are energy dependent
and build complex molecules from smaller
monomers.
A solution of starch at room
temperature does not readily
decompose to form a solution of simple
sugars because
• A. the starch solution has less free energy than the sugar
solution
• B. the hydrolysis of starch to sugar is endergonic
• C. the activation energy barrier for this reaction cannot be
reached and overcome
• D. starch cannot by hydrolyzed in the presence of water
Cyanide binds with at least one molecule
involved in producing ATP. If a cell is
exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide
with be found in which organelle?
What is the term for metabolic pathways
that release stored energy by breaking
down complex molecules?
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A. anabolic pathways
B. catabolic pathways
C. fermentation pathways
D. thermodynamic pathways
In addition to ATP, what are the end
products of glycolysis?
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A. CO2 and H2O
B. CO2 and pyruvate
C. NADH and pyruvate
D. CO2 and NADH
A young animal had never had much energy. He
is brought to a vet for help and is sent to the
animal hospital for some tests. There they
discover his mitochondria can use only fatty
acids and amino acids for respiration, and his
cells produce more lactate than normal. What is
an explanation for his condition?
Something is inhibiting his cells from
using oxygen. Glycolysis occurs, but
with no usable oxygen respiration
cannot continue.
It is possible to prepare vesicles from portions of
the inner mitochondrial membrane. Which of
the following processes could still be carried on
by this isolated inner membrane?
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A. the citric acid cycle
B. glycolysis and fermentation
C. oxidative phosphorylation
D. the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
A cell can almost always make 38 ATP for
each glucose molecule broken down.
The enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle
take place in the chloroplasts.
If atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase
twofold or more, how would plants be
affected, disregarding climate changes?
Radio wavelengths are over a km long
while gamma ray wavelengths are less than
a nm long.
The Golgi apparatus has a polarity
(sidedness) to its structure and function.
Which of the following statements
correctly describes the polarity?
• A. Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and
leave from the opposite side.
• B. Proteins in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and
modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the
other.
• C. Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and
modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the
other.
• D. All of the above correctly describe polar characteristics
of the Golgi body.
Which plant cell organelle contains its
own DNA and ribosomes?
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A. peroxisome
B. contractile vacuole
C. mitochondrion
D. glyoxysome
Some regions of the plasma membrane,
called lipid rafts, have a higher
concentration of cholesterol molecules.
As a result, these lipid rafts
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A. are more fluid than the surrounding membrane
B. are more rigid than the surrounding membrane
C. are able to flip from inside to outside
D. detach from the plasma membrane and clog arteries
Which of the following is true about
diffusion?
• A. It is very rapid over long distances.
• B. It requires an expenditure of energy by the cell.
• C. It is a passive process in which molecules move from a
region of higher concentration to a region of lower
concentration.
• D. It is an active process in which molecules move from a
region of lower concentration to one of higher
concentration.
A cell placed in a hypotonic solution means
there is more water in the outside solution
than there is inside the cell.
The solutions in the two arms of a U-shaped
tube are separated by a membrane that is
permeable to water and glucose but not to
sucrose. Side A contains a solution of 2M
sucrose and 1M glucose. Side B contains a
solution of 1M sucrose and 2M glucose. The
liquid levels on both sides are equal. Initially,
in terms of concentrations, the solution in side
A with respect to side B is…
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease in humans in
which the CFTR protein, which functions as a
chloride ion channel, is missing or nonfunctional
in cell membranes. The CFTR protein belongs to
what category of membrane proteins?
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A. aquaporins
B. gap junctions
C. cotransporters
D. hydrophilic channels
If the sodium ion concentration outside the
cell increase, and the CFTR channel is
open, in what direction will chloride ions
and water move across the cell membrane?
• A. Chloride ions will move out of the cell, and water will
move into the cell.
• B. Both chloride ions and water will move out of the cell.
• C. Chloride ions will move into the cell and water will move
out of the cell.
• D. Both chloride ions and water will move into the cell.
A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X  Y
 Z  A. Product A binds to the enzyme that
converts X to Y at a position remove from its
active site. This binding decreases the activity
of the enzyme. What is substance X?
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A. a conenzyme
B. a substrate
C. an intermediate
D. the product
Where is ATP synthase located in the
mitochondrion?
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A. cytosol
B. electron transport chain
C. inner membrane
D. outer membrane
Plants don’t need to have both noncyclic and
cyclic electron flow between their photosystems
for photosynthesis to occur.
Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae
with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing
different segments of algae to different wavelengths of
light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in
which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted the
largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by
the red and blue light. What did this outcome show?
• A. the relationship between heterotrophs and autotrophs
• B. the relationship between wavelengths of light and the
rate of aerobic respiration
• C. the relationship between wavelengths of light and the
amount of heat released
• D. the relationship between the wavelengths of light and
the rate of photosynthesis